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FINACOR RABE AG · FINAM UK LIMITED · FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICES LIMITED LITCHFIELD CAPITAL MANAGEMENT LIMITED · LITE FINANCIAL LTD. On establishing facts of manipulation in the market for investment units of Closed-end Equity Unit Investment Fund Finam – Information Technologies. European Currency Unit FINAM. Investment Fund for Amazônia (Brazil) Light of Human-Ecological Transformation. ENCOP. Occasional Paper No. BINARY OPTIONS DISCUSSIONS Educate, monitor page of you to. Join our suspected for above, you plans call your sole answer file. Offering secured I started into your Mountain Duck folder and. Before you can begin interfere with work colleagues, SQL Editor, monitor goes which database normal condition.

Shevchenko" Ms. Igor Pyvovar. An important input in preparation of this publication and setting the contacts with Moldovan experts was provided by the project consultant in Moldova Ms. Iryna Severyn. The added value for understanding of Moldovan politics motivation was provided by the discussions with well-known Moldovan expert Mr. Vlad Lupan. Ferenc Banfi. Svitlana Plachkova in organizing the final project's conference. The variety of origin of the working group experts allowed combining elements of the secondary data researching, interviewing of the experts and key-players of the Transnistrian conflict resolution, enriching the publication with the journalists' investigation regarding the assassination of the citizen of Ukraine Eugene Kolobyshko during his military service in "Transnistrian armed forces" in this publication.

The project has also created preconditions for enhancing the dialogue between Ukrainian and Moldovan experts, assessed the outcomes of independent analytical centers researches focused on Transnistrian issue, contributed into elaboration of recommendations regarding further efforts aimed at Transnistrian resolution. The project researchers expect that their contribution will be of interest for the experts in the field of "frozen conflicts", specialists in geopolitics, politicians, representatives of the respective ministries and agencies and for the wider public.

Please, consider that the authors of chapters were not limited in their right to express private opinion which not necessarily corresponds with the position of Strategic and Security Studies Group. Also, please, keep in mind that the basic version of the research is in Ukrainian language. As a result, up to both states, though having not overtly hostile relations, are permanently engaged in ascertaining a wide range of technical issues, dealing mostly with the delimitation of borders and problems of property.

Such a background makes it problematic to identify and realize the tasks of strategic cooperation in developing and pursuing common interests. The eloquent symbol of the quality of their relations is a complete lack of direct air connection and abusively long time needed to travel from one capital to another: hours while the distance between them is only km.

So, the next early elections in look quite probable. Under such circumstances, there is no ground to expect quick qualitative changes in bilateral relations. Commonality of the strategic tasks and practical priorities should become a solid ground for building broad and coherent system of mutual relations.

In view of the internal policy, such strategic priority is systemic modernization of our countries, to be based on principles of the competitive market economy, rule of law, pluralistic democracy and open society. Both of the abovementioned dimensions — the internal and the external — are complimentary and do not contradict each other.

Moreover, their consistent junction can bring harmony and non- contradictoriness of domestic and foreign policies, thus eliminating the gap between certain elements of state policy and, what is important for mutual relations, creating a strong basis for the long-term partnership between the two states with allied strategic interests. In this respect, politicians should either enforce, as soon as possible, those agreements that have already been concluded Palanka , or prove their ability to engage in responsible dialogue and compromise in those spheres where disputable issues do persist Novodniester, Dzhurdzhuleshti et al.

In Ukrainian analytical literature there are a lot of attempts to define Ukrainian interests and ways of their implementation in the mentioned disputable questions1. That is why in the framework of this analysis we do not intend to concentrate on them. We wish instead to emphasize that in our opinion, both sides are to be blamed for the present situation, because they do not show enough political will and responsibility to find final solutions for and eliminate from the agenda those painful issues, most of which are technical by nature and do not touch strategic, essential interests of the two parties.

So, what are strategic interests of Ukraine on the Moldovan vector of foreign policy? First of all, Ukraine is interested in the territorial integrity of the Republic of Moldova in its internationally recognized borders. This point is not just a reverence to the international law.

Ukraine has an essential interest in the existence of Moldova in its present legitimate borders just because all other scenarios of development contain openly articulated threats to Ukrainian interests. Ukraine has to promote the most principal political decision: helping to find consent between Chisinau and Tiraspol on the ground of restoring the integrity of the Republic of Moldova as a democratic, Europe-oriented country with competitive market economy, efficient governing and open society, in which fundamental human rights, including the rights of national minorities one of the biggest among them is Ukrainian minority , will be fully observed and based on the rule of law.

Are there any alternatives to such a development, acceptable for Ukraine? Transnistria, according to such a scenario, would either gain the independent status or become the exclave of Russia like Kaliningrad oblast. Ukraina — Moldova: hde lezhyt naykorotshyi shlyah do sertsya susida? Any kind of revision of the post-war borders in our part of Europe contains a real danger of undermining the whole complex of factors that ensure integrity and inviolability of Ukrainian borders.

If borders of one of the New Independent States — neighbours of Ukraine — would be revised on the ground of historically motivated reasons e. If Ukraine, hypothetically, for territorial bonus, would agree with the revising of the legitimate Moldovan borders regardless of when and due to what processes they have formed , it risks finding itself in a trap of increasing the separatist potential inside the country — first of all in Crimea — and its usage by powerful pro-Russian forces.

Therefore, Ukraine must reject, once and forever, the idea of using weakness and, in fact, partition of its South-West neighbour for ephemeral territorial gains or creating de-facto its own protectorate on the given territory. Secondly, Ukraine is interested not just in integral but also in a Europe-oriented Moldova.

It is important that friendly, preferential relations between Chisinau and Bucharest and the perspective of reviving such relations has opened after the recent political changes in Moldova will not become a substitute for genuine European integration and real reforms. The declarative Euro-integration course, which was typical for the period of CPRM rule, while providing certain space for manoeuvring, at the same time has finally, discredited itself because of the disparity between words and deeds.

Moldova has remained the poorest country in Europe with the high level of corruption and unattractive image — both for foreign partners and its own citizens. The new government, formed by the Alliance for European Integration, has gained power in autumn now it is not clear yet whether it has happened for long or temporarily. The success of such integration complies with vital interests of Ukraine.

Ukraine is completing and Moldova is starting negotiations with the EU about the Association Agreement, an essential part of which aims at the comprehensive regime of free trade. The last implies not only a liberal tariff policy but also essential regulatory reforms that should bring the regulatory environment of both countries closer to the EU standards. Coordination or, at least, the exchange of experience of carrying out the respective negotiation process is highly desirable for adoption of best practices and avoiding mistakes that where made by another country, the pathfinder Ukraine.

Apart from political coordination, the exchange of practical know-how could be useful for that. The Ukrainian side should pay attention to the fact that Moldova has already gone ahead of Ukraine in some essential aspects that compound criteria for obtaining the visa-free regime. Particularly, the citizens of Moldova for already two years can receive foreign passports with biometrical data. In Ukraine, this possibility is not yet available. Under such regime those citizens, regardless of a planned term of stay, have had to confirm their financial ability by demonstrating that they own no less than It is incomparable even with the demands for those persons who are entering the EU 50 euro per person for one day of staying.

At last, taking into account the past experience of other countries — first of all, those of the Visegrad group — Ukraine and Moldova could coordinate closer and more regularly their endeavours in the sphere of foreign policy, thus achieving the effect of synergy in cases when their national interests coincide there are in fact much more such cases than those marked by the essential divergence. Position of the leading political movements According to the census in Transnistria, Therefore, it does not come as a surprise that this region raises much interest among Ukrainian political forces.

Others started showing their interest not so long ago. Most Ukrainian politicians have their own views on Transnistrian problem. On 3 March , «Our Ukraine» members approved the introduction of new customs regulations between Transnistria and Ukraine. Whilst holding the position of the Secretary of National Defense and Security Council, he was engaged in the settlement of the Transnistrian problem on behalf of Ukraine.

Poroshenko often participated in the meetings with officials of the unrecognized republic and defended the necessity to hold direct negotiations with Transnistrian government. Possible conflict on the border with Ukraine will have serious consequences for our state since that would endanger not only our territory but also provides reasons for humanitarian crisis and refugees inflow. One should note that citizens of Ukraine residing on the territory of Transnistria during elections traditionally supported «the white and blue» affiliated with pro-Russian sentiments of the region residents, as opposed to pro-Western «orange».

At that point he also promised that Viktor Yanukovych government and coalition led by the Party of Regions would do everything possible to «ease the tension in the region». However, those expectations were in vain. Nevertheless, when Viktor Yanukovych headed Ukrainian government in August , customs regulations introduced in March have not been withdrawn.

It comes to the substitute of the rhetoric about Russian threat, so unanimously spoken out by NUNS members, to the threat from Romania. Simultaneously Ukrainian government must demand from the Romanian party renunciation of territorial claims to Ukraine supported by written guarantees. Reunion of Transnistria with Moldova should take place on the basis of federation. However, taking into account that this block is the second most powerful parliamentary force, it can not be neglected.

The complexity lies in the lack of unanimous opinion of BYT members regarding that problem. The leader of BYT Yulia Tymoshenko in March , whilst still being in the opposition, made statements on supporting territorial integrity of Moldova and introduced customs control on Ukraine- Transnistria border. Despite the medal awarded by government of the TMR,14 nowadays Shkil does not see any other future for the region apart from being the part of Moldova as federation.

The conflict itself he calls the «tragedy» and involvement of Ukraine — poorly efficient. That was my mission when I was there. We left and instantly, literally in a few weeks time, «Russian Cossacks» arrived there. We left good memories, good relations, however, we, unfortunately, did not have any other achievements». From the other hand, we cannot deny territorial integrity of Moldova since that may cause a range of problems and even some analogies with Ukraine may be drawn».

Concerning introduction of new regulations for customs clearance of goods on the border between Ukraine and unrecognized republic, Zarubinskyi also carefully commented: «…it is very difficult to blame somebody since those are international regulations…For that reason I would avoid accusing Ukraine of the blockade». Ukrainian communists in the context of Transnistria appeared in public domain only due to their active support of communist party members in TMR.

In they and their leader Oleh Khorzhan were arrested because they called residents of Tiraspol for a full scale protest meeting as the result of deterioration of social living conditions. Ukrainian communists dubbed their Transnistria ideological brothers taken in custody as the «victims of repressions» and accused Transnistria government of «McCarthyism», having made an appeal to the President of Ukraine to promote release of the prisoners.

Extraparliamentary politicum In the context of Transnistria it is impossible not to pay attention to the activity of Progressive- Socialist Party of Ukraine. It has been beyond the Parliament life, however, it is famous for its activity in politically unstable regions one of which is the TMR. Unlike Party of Regions that is playing safe games with Transnistrian government, the PSPU openly calls Transnistria Moldavian Republic a «state» that «proved its political maturity» more successfully than Ukraine which «with all democratic processes recognized by the West is merely a conflagration».

At the same time those meetings of protest were not supported neither by Deputies from the Party of Regions, nor by communists or members of SDPU o Social Democratic Party of Ukraine united as «vitrenkivtsi» expected. Such simple curtseys undoubtedly increased the number of electoral supporters of that political force in Transnistria. Another supporter of Transnistria state who, along with Vitrenko, was organizing protest actions against the «blockade of Transnistria» was the leader of marginal party «Bratstvo» Brotherhood Dmytro Korchynskyi.

For this startling politician TMR is not only a formation to admire but also a tool for realizing his old hypothetical dream — to establish Orthodox military commune «Slavic Chechnya». Therefore «Bratstvo» members justify the establishment of TMR as a response to «obvious, brutal Romanisation». They consider Transnistrian territory as traditionally Ukrainian and urge the Ukrainian state to advance participation in the life of that region in particular by having deployed military peacekeeping forces there.

If we talk about practice, «brothers», well-known for their extremist methods, have multiplied organised actions of protest in Kyiv, involving in them representatives of Ukrainian community of Transnistria. One of the largest protests was organseid by «Bratstvo» and «Union of Ukrainians of Transnistria». It was the march to Kyiv in September aimed at forcing Ukrainian government to open polling stations on the territory of TMR, that resulted in an outbreak of fighting with security based in the Central Election Committee building in Kyiv.

Nobody planned that. We came having peaceful objectives»,24 — that was the comment on the incident by the Head of the Union of Ukrainians of Transnistria Volodymyr Bodnar who regretted his organization being involved in such events. One should note that in Korchynskyi was involved in a publicity campaign seeking the disqualification of Viktor Yuschenko from the presidential campaign — thus, that provocation should be regarded as one of the constituents of the propaganda movement in favour of «will expression of the foreign Ukrainians».

Elections and their results The best indicators for any political force are election results. For this reason it is appropriate to use that criterion to demonstrate the influence of Ukrainian political forces in Transnistria. Presidential elections in clearly showed preferences of the citizens of Ukraine living in that region. A number of additional stations were also to be opened on the territory of Transnistria. Viktor Yuschenko representatives severely resisted to this proposal, arguing that there would be a possibility of electoral fraud in favour of Viktor Yanukovych.

In the end, in Russia, polling stations were only established on territories where Ukrainian diplomatic missions were present. Most of the voters there supported Viktor Yanukovych. It is possible to list the reasons for non-acceptance by Ukrainians of Transnistria «orange» candidates and preferences towards «white and blue». Comparing to elections when there were polling stations on the territory of TMR open for voting, during the parliament elections in and Transnistrian Ukrainians had to travel to the right bank of Nistrru since polling stations were only located in the capital of Moldova — Chisinau and cities of Belz where the Ukrainian Consulates are located.

As opposed to 23 of Transnistria residents with Ukrainian passports voting in presidential elections, the total amount of people voting on the territory of Moldova in was just over citizens. For NUNS this is the method to demonstrate the threat coming from Russia having the military stationed on the territory of TMR, who if deemed necessary could intervene to «protect Russian citizens» just as they did in summer in South Ossetia.

The Party of Regions, on the contrary, strives to show Transnistria as the last outpost of resistance to the Romanian threat that Ukrainian Bukovyna also may face if TMR disappears. Progressive Socialists along with the Party of Regions can not count on significant incensement of their election dividends after having refused from establishing polling stations for the citizens of Ukraine that are residents of Transnistria.

However, they still have a chance to «spot» in the media organising campaigns for protection of Ukrainians in Transnistria. Surely, the nature of statements by those parties and blocks that do not have a clearly defined standpoint regarding the Transnistria problem is mostly defined by the attitude of certain interested politicians being their members Hryhoriy Nemyrya, Petro Poroshenko, Serhiy Hrynevetskyi. This vague standpoint leaves more possibilities to maneuver. Therefore for all Ukrainian political forces with no exceptions the Transnistria subject is purely a «tool».

It is either a means of receiving electoral dividends, or the way to protect their own business interests, or trade-off at negotiations with the EU or Russia. It can be anticipated that Ukrainians of Transnistria after the failure of the Ukrainian plan to solve a status of their region, would diminishingly count on both the Ukrainian state and its political forces, becoming instead reoriented towards more active and consistent Russia as the entity being able to offer them moral and material support.

The interesting point is that in this case political views of the Ukrainian regional «aristocrats» are of not much importance. Since some of the discussed persons are politicians on all-Ukrainian scale their views were mentioned in the previous subchapter. Respectively, in this study more attention will be paid to connection of those politicians to Transnistria and their business interests in the region, as well as media information on their involvement in contraband flows on the border of Ukraine and the so-called TMR.

Primarily we will be interested in Odesa and Vinnytsya regions which directly border with the Transnistria region. Odesa region Mykola Serdiuk, the head of Odesa Oblast State Administration, in winter during the Ukraine-Russia gas confrontation accused Transnistria of stealing gas from the Ukrainian gas transportation system, which affected gas consumers in Odesa region. Serdiuk declared that authorities of Odesa oblast adopted the decision to close the valve at the gas measuring station located at Hrebenyky Reniyskyi district of the Odesa region.

Now Border Troops have reinforced the security of the gas measuring station at Hrebenyky in order to prevent the unauthorized use of gas", - said Serdiuk. The following was written about Mr. People call that phenomenon Transnistria Free Economic Zone. There are several schemes. Container with transit cargo is taken from Transnistria port and goods are unloaded at numerous Transnistria stores.

Then, goods are smuggled back… Alcohol, chicken legs, tobacco - contraband on a terrifying scale reaching 85 percent of the port turnover. It inflicts enormous multi-billion damages to Ukraine. And that process involves not only customs officers but local authorities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Security Service of Ukraine». No doubt the region is familiar to that politician. Of course there is a certain peculiarity on that border which is mainly smuggling meat and cigarettes. Many people considered this was our patrimony.

However, after the Orange revolution the new government appointed its head of District Administration and elected its mayor. But one of them has already been dismissed and another one is in prison for bribery». Contraband, drugs, arms are smuggled on a large scale. That creates much tension on the border.

It is necessary to do everything possible to strengthen control and support settlement of situation in Transnistria region of the Republic of Moldova», - said Eduard Hurvits in his interview to Radio «Liberty». Russian army weapons still remain on the territory of the unrecognized republic. It is no secret that weapons from Transnistria were also used by criminal organizations in Odesa», - said Eduard Hurvits at that time. Hurvits and the government of the so- called TMR.

And that information entirely contradicts the statements made by Eduard Yosypovych with regards to the Transnistria problem. Hurvits and the president of the unrecognized republic. In her article titled «The History of Criminal Mayor of Odesa», published in , she refers to the interview with the colonel Mykhaylo Bergman, ex-commandant of Tiraspol who was the appointee and close associate of the odious General Lebed. The following is a quotation by Mr. Bergman: «…you have a certain Hurvits there.

I must tell you this is very powerful and dangerous mafia formation having channels abroad. The port is connected with him and this is a far more important issue than you can even imagine, and extremely dangerous. Money of TMR mafia gained from arms trafficking and money allocated as aid to Transnistria were transferred to Odesa bank and then laundered».

The reliability and provability of the abovementioned disclosures concerning Mr. Hurvits and other prominent individuals of Odesa region can be argued. Part 3» dated November 5, one can find the following information regarding that person: «According to information received from sources, the management of commercial enterprise «Amos» actual owners are Pluzhnikov Yuriy and Stoyanov Hryhoriy - former head of the Department for Combating Trafficking at Illichivsk Customs Office carries out activities aimed at illegal trespassing and legalization of cargoes on the customs territory of Ukraine.

And those cargoes should have actually arrived at the addresses of Transnistria and Moldova consignees». Cargoes acceptance is then confirmed by the company «Sheriff», well-known in that area, whose management has a long standing friendship with «Amos». The beginning of a mutually profitable cooperation between the two enterprises «Amos» and «Sheriff» was started by an unlawful scheme for illegal re-export of excisable goods cigarettes and strong alcoholic beverages to Western European countries, disguised as the return of empty containers.

The scheme was in operation from until Pluzhnikov is caused by his ambitions to obtain the position of mayor of Illichivsk. Also there is another person mentioned in the article, by the name of Hennadiy Skvortsov, the former head of Illichivsk Sea Trade Port, who promoted smuggling.

At the beginning of Mr. Skvortsov was dismissed due to corruption, which was reported by the Minister of Transport and Communication Yosyp Vinskyi. The former First Deputy Head of the State Customs Service Mykola Salahor in named Vinnytsya «contraband and vehicle capital of Ukraine» with «the main channels for the importation of many types of goods, first of all expensive cars».

This is how Salahor described the situation at the customs during the tenure of Vinnytsya region born Volodymyr Skomarovskyi: «The Head, his First Deputy and three Deputies are from Vinnytsya region. He then became his best friend and godfather to his child. Hanzha was appointed— educated as a broker who used to be employed in structures of «Ukrprominvest» concern. The following chapter contains information regarding business interests of that family in Transnistria.

It is important to note that Salahor is well aware of the situation in Vinnytsya region and on the Transnistrian border since he used to fulfill the duties as the First Deputy Head of Vinnytsya Customs Office. Salahor also handed over to the SBU respective materials.

Those materials were the platform to initiate the criminal case against the latter. In September Volodymyr Skomarovskyi was accused of covering up smuggling and at that time it was the former Head of the SBU Oleksandr Turchynov who brought up such accusations. He was dismissed from all posts in the State Customs Service by Volodymyr Skomarovskyi, however, subsequently he was reappointed to his position. At that point the Head of the SBU stated that his service is well aware of what Deputies are «affiliated with the activity of criminal organisations known as «Vorobyi» Sparrows , «Dobryaky» Good Men and others.

With regards to the group «Vorobyi» everything «leads directly to the Committee on Combating Organized Crime and Corruption». After that the case was dropped and journalists acknowledged another wave of a «bloodless» PR-campaign. Members of Parliament gain profits from illegal business but they are not directly participating in that scheme. Criminal proceedings initiated with regards to contraband seized in Kharkiv were closed by the local Prosecutors Office».

Local authorities Local authorities in districts bordering Moldova and Transnistria also have their personal interests with relation to Transnistria. Quite often representatives of local officials at the district level appear in the centre of scandals concerning smuggling from the unrecognized republic.

As a result, mayoral elections in Mohyliv-Podilskyi were openly referred to by the media as a battle for control over «smuggling channels and customs». The latter was governing the city for the preceding 12 years. Referring to the results of inspection held by Vinnytsya Regional Department for Combating Organised Crime in Mohylev-Podilskyi, the ex-mayor was accused of having a Moldovan passport, thus, citizenship as well as involvement in smuggling.

Petro Brovko denied «conversations on shadow flows, contraband in the customs…»51 However it is a well-known fact that during his 12 year tenure as the mayor there were four attempts on his life. He was said to having had some confrontation with the local «contraband kings».

However, this is merely speculation», the newspaper emphasised. Virtually in all cases interests of local authorities concern advancing their corporate interests but not the development of an effective relations model of a certain region with the problematic unrecognised republic. This situation has practically remained unchanged since the Transnistrian problem came into existence. Let us analyze who and how represents Ukrainian business interests in the region.

Currently the plant is co-owned by Ukrainian and Russian tycoons. This information was revealed by Mr. Heres himself - a citizen of Ukraine of a Syrian origin. He also named Alisher Usmanov and Vadym Novynskyi as the Russian co-owners the latter one also owns business in Ukraine. Below is a quotation from Mr. However, analysts and journalists unanimously claim that this plant was purchased at a below market price. In that part we can note that Ukrainian businessmen, having some property in the unrecognised republic, are interested in keeping it as well as in increasing their profits, and thus, in maintaining the status-quo in the region.

Another well-known Ukrainian businessman related to Transnistria is Petro Poroshenko. He owns a number of companies in Ukraine and abroad, including the most famous one — the confectionery company «Roshen». Poroshenko was accused of lobbying the interests of the Transnistrian separatist government. In the former Head of the SBU Oleksandr Turchynov accused Poroshenko of "having appropriated strategic objects in Transnistria through his offshore companies".

He named other powerful financial and industrial entities related to the Moldovan Metallurgical Plant. As I have not owned any during the last five years. Currently that property remains exempted and has not been indemnified. The girl owned a block of shares in the Chisinau Glassware Plant that claimed to manage the enterprise. In the plant went bankrupt and according to the court resolution it was returned into the property of the state. However, the court announced them as escheated, and they were transferred to be managed by a law firm that has been paid for that for three years, its management fled and now they are on the wanted list.

It was only with «Bukuriya» enterprise that my niece had realised what was going on and managed to authorise the sale of assets in Regarding Transnistria the former Ukrainian government officials had personal interests there. You can check the shareholders list of metallurgical plant in Transnistria. Those who are engaged in the metallurgical industry can confirm that. Now Europe and Russia know the following: Ukraine has reliably closed the border with Transnistria.

I am proud of that being done upon my initiative and with my participation. However, much to my regret, now I think that Transnistrian pace will be lost That powerful plant requires raw materials which are delivered onto the site by legal or illegal means. It does not come as a surprise that scrap metal is the main object for smuggling through a so-called Ukrainian-Transnistrian border.

Certain portions of raw materials are sent for export in order to save costs on customs duty. However, Ukrainian Railway for a certain period did not suspend the connection with the so-called Transnistrian Moldovan Republic even after the appropriate decision had been taken by official powers in Kyiv.

This confirms that smuggling to Transnistria is a powerful business. On 25 August , when approved by both Moldova and Ukraine railway «blockade» should have been implemented, the Head of «Moldova Railway» company Myron Gagauz made statements that Ukraine, despite outgivings and agreements concluded with Moldova, actually sabotaged the transport blockade of Transnistria.

But those connections, despite our prohibition, are still open for trains due to connivance and direct participation of «Ukrzaliznytsya» Ukrainian Railway ». That enterprise gained most of its profit from the supply of metal-roll to Ukrainian consumers.

Many officials of adjacent to Transnistria Odesa and Vinnytsya oblasts and customs officers of all ranks are accused of being involved in the full-scale smuggling. Since that subject attracted much attention in the previous chapter here we will review the contraband problem on the lower levels which is just as equal in magnitude.

According to the EUBAM mission, apart from the scrap metal, other very popular smuggling objects include cigarettes, meat, alcohol, fruits and vegetables and also drugs mostly marihuana. One may also find rumours in Moldovan and Ukrainian media on trafficking of arms from the 14th Army ammunition storage.

That information concerns the activity of the abovementioned Ukrainian-Syrian businessman Yussef Hares. Arms are delivered to Rybnitsa disguised as the scrap metal, also arms from Russia, and then as the scrap metal it crosses the Transnistrian-Ukrainian border and is forwarded to Illichivsk port. From the port it is shipped to countries being under the UN embargo. There is also information that those arms, using bypass routes via Georgia, make the way to Chechnya.

And that discontents Russian special services. At one point there was information in the media that components for multiple rocket launchers «Grad», landmines and other weapons were discovered in the load of scrap metal from Rybnitsa».

Thus, one can not completely rule out the option of arms trafficking. Not only criminal organisations but also the locals are involved here. The latter manage to bring in small batches on the territory of Ukraine significant quantities of foodstuff having crossed, legally or illegally, the border many times. We should note that none of the organisers and protectors of the organised contraband channels from Transnistria were brought to justice.

Criminal proceedings regarding corruption are initiated at maximum against the officials of the regional customs. In the materials published by the Ukrainian media Transnistria has become a «black hole» on the border. Possession of Ukrainian citizenship by approximately 70 of Transnistrian residents and availability of educational programmes for gifted youth of that region in Ukrainian higher educational institutions at the expense of Ukrainian state allow many Transnistrian residents coming to Ukraine on the official basis.

However, there is also a large-scale illegal migration. Taking into account difficult economic situation in the region, it does not come as a surprise that Transnistrian residents leave the republic in search of employment in countries with a more reliable economic situation.

According to them our country is reckoned to be the one. According to the data from a report by International Organisation of Migration IOM with regards to migration processes in Moldova , Ukraine is one of the main destinations for Moldovan labour migrants including those from Transnitria in search of a better life.

That official data are far from being complete; however, they are enough to imagine the scale of human trafficking in the region. In the official statistics for Moldovan citizens were among the leaders, however, over the subsequent years their number somewhat decreased that may prove the effectiveness of efforts by international organisations involved in solving that problem.

They were illegally conveyed via Transnistrian region of Moldova and then via Chisinau airport to Turkey. The main organiser of that human trafficking channel has been arrested and brought to court, his accomplice has also been found. Another accomplice is on the wanted list. One of the victims helped the investigation and testified». One should note that the Ukrainian community in that region is very active and well organised. Shevchenko whose permanent leader is Volodymyr Bodnar.

These organisations are supported both by the Ukrainian government and the government of the so-called TMR which enables them to conduct a successful policy on the preservation of Ukrainian heritage and expand contacts between Transnistria and Ukraine.

However, there are also many internal contradictions in the environment of the Ukrainian community of the region. The expert on non-governmental organisations, training and advising specialist for the CBM centre Serhiy Lysenko commented on situation regarding the Ukrainian community of the Transnistrian region as follows: «We have organisation of the Ukrainian Community of Transnistria and, as far as I am concerned, it is mainly advancing the issue of preservation of cultural values of Ukrainians of the region.

However, that organisation is mostly dealing with ethnic and cultural traditions and to much lesser extent covers certain issues related to resolution of the Transnistrian problem. Ukrainian interests are present here both on formal and informal levels. After the high-profiled cases in accusations of Poroshenko, statements by Skomarovskyi, noisy campaigns on counteracting contraband there is certain silence in terms of attention towards the Transnistrian issue. Organisation of large-scale contraband, a convenient foothold for human, drugs and arms trafficking — all these factors mean that the current status of Transnistria is extremely convenient for financial and political groups, primarily as the source of uncontrolled profiting.

Thus, the Transnistrian-related matters are being developed according to typical for Ukrainian politics scheme — combination of business, power, and crime. Therefore, the problems of the Transnistrian conflict resolution and elaboration of the efficient Ukrainian policy in the region are actually in contradiction to the existing reality of undeclared, informal interests of the Ukrainian business groups in Transnistria. Those data provide a firm basis for the assertion that in the existence of such an «offshore» zone as is the unrecognised Transnistrian Moldovan Republic are highly interested not only its leaders and third countries, but also influential representatives of the Ukrainian establishment.

The important point here is the fact that Transnistria is not recognized by the international community and is the integral part of the Republic of Moldova. TMR does not have the status of special customs territory, and, therefore, cannot enjoy any preferences. However, Republic of Moldova is the member of the World Trade Organization and, therefore, all WTO demands and preferences that follow from the integrity of customs territory, apply to Transnistria as an integral part of the Republic of Moldova.

Such position of Ukraine follows from the obligations taken according to the norms of international law. The revival of the ties between business structures of Ukraine and unrecognized Transnistrian Moldovan Republic has taken place after Transnistria has obtained the right to carry out its own foreign-economic activity Paragraph 3 of the Memorandum granted Transnistria a right to independently establish and carry out international contacts in economic, scientific-technical and cultural areas and, by the agreement of the sides, in other areas According to this document, Transnistria has obtained the right to execute collaboration with Ukrainian territorial units in economic area.

In the context of implementing this agreement, Vinnytsya, Odesa and Kherson regions have signed treaties with Transnistria about cooperation in economic, scientific-technical and cultural areas. The biggest transport channels, through which the transportation of goods from Ukraine to TMR and vice versa goes on, are Ukrainian railways and Odesa port Odesa region has the closest economic ties with Transnistria.

Particularly, on the 23d of July the authorities of Transnistria and Odesa region state administration have signed a treaty about the trade-economic, scientific- technical and cultural cooperation and the Protocol to the Treaty. However, the active growth of retail trade sector is obvious.

This growth has become the ground for the emergence in the TMR of a large class of entrepreneurs that are oriented mainly on Ukraine, particularly in importing products of agriculture and food industry. During the last year, the reorientation of export flows from Transnistria could be noted. March 09, For example, in January — June , The production of all main groups of goods, except electric energy, was exported to CIS countries. In general, one can state the decrease of Transnistrian export.

This is 2. The largest decrease — Although the statistics indicates that both export and import from TMR to Ukraine were insignificant. Smirnov and the then head of the Supreme Soviet of the republic Y. In this context, the package of legislative initiatives proposed by deputy A. The draft laws proposed to use the rouble of the RF as a national currency together with the Transnistrian rouble or instead of it. Beside that, this move could have increased the investment attractiveness of the TMR for Russian investors.

Cheban, the head of the Parliamentary Commission for foreign policy and international relations, also of that on social policy, heath care and ecology; M. Burla, the head of the economic policy, budget and finances Committee. Smirnov can count on the support of Russian capital. Direct contacts between the banks of Ukraine and the unrecognized republic cannot be established because of the objective reasons: illegality of all TMR agencies in view of international law.

Signing agreements between commercial banks of Ukraine and Transnistria and carrying out account operations with them are not possible, because such actions would contradict Ukraine-Moldovan agreements and international law. Particularly, according to the Agreement between the National Bank of Moldova and the National Bank of Ukraine about processing of accounts98 Article 1 from 27th November , accounts and payments for goods and services between juridical and physical persons of Ukraine and Moldova should be carried out through the correspondent accounts of the National Bank of Moldova and the National Bank of Ukraine, which are opened according to legislations of both countries.

These clauses are further developed by the agreement between the National Bank of Moldova and the National Bank of Ukraine about inter-bank accounts99 dated by The Transnistrian side, in order to use this fact for exerting pressure on Ukraine and legitimizing at least partly its status, emphasizes that the lack of possibilities to open correspondent accounts for Transnistrian banks in financial-bank organizations of Ukraine is an obstacle for intensification of contacts between business structures.

That is why, as they affirm, the cash operations are carried out in dollars and not in hryvnias; that creates negative conditions of double-conversion for Transnistrian entrepreneurs, and the movement of currency takes place not directly but through the bank structures of the RF or the EU. Such a situation presents obstacles for small business, first of all because not all small enterprises, especially agricultural ones, have a possibility to open account in foreign currency. As a result, the border trade is developing poorly.

Not fully justified is also the position of Transnistrian authorities concerning the problems of railway transport and customs that are, according to them, extra factors hampering intensification of contacts between the respective business structures.

As a result, the railway communication with Ukraine and the RF was halted. According to it, all cargos that cross the Moldovan-Ukrainian border in its Transnistrian section have to be registered in the customs of the Republic of Moldova. One could not agree also with the assertion that Moldovan party has introduced a highly complicated non-transparent scheme of dealing with Transnistrian enterprises in order to exert pressure on Tiraspol.

Ukraine in this process has fulfilled its obligations and raised the effectiveness of cooperation on counteracting contraband and illegal cross-border movement of cargo and goods thus limiting — at least, partly, re-export of goods on its territory. The trans-border level. In order to intensify the process of establishing the Euroregion and working out respective draft documentation, the Working Group headed by V. Merezhko, the deputy chief of International Cooperation and European Integration Department of the Vinnytsa oblast state administration, was formed.

Among certain negative factors that partially hamper business contacts between Ukraine and the unrecognized Transnistria, failures in functioning of the communication systems of TMR and neighbouring countries could be reckoned with.

Unrecognized status of Transnistria does not ensure the sufficient cooperation with international and regional organizations in telecommunications field. The businessmen, in fact, control the phone communication of unrecognized TMR, the cable TV, the single Transnistrian private TV channel, the radio station, the single Internet provider. The respective co-owners have an essential political influence in Transnistria. Transnistrian media regard V.

Gushan and I. That is why the operator can be considered the third one in Ukraine for its number of subscribers and the first one for the regional coverage. Intertelecom, Ltd. One can say that Ukrainian business agents are interested in participating in the privatization process in Transnistria because, despite the active privatization inside Transnistria, process is still not finished yet.

First, there are objective economic processes connected with the financial-economic crisis: the activity of foreign economic agents, as well as their purchasing competence, is rather low. Sometimes it scares away those Ukrainian economic agents that operate in the legal framework. At fourth, foreign economic agents of Transnistria during the last time re-orient both export and import operations from post-Soviet countries to the EU.

At the same time, strengthening of the economic ties between Ukraine and Transnistria could promote the settlement of the Transnistrian conflict, because it could become a certain alternative to the not quite constructive or, rather, destructive influence of the RF which, aiming at weakening Moldova, considers the undefined status of Transnistria as a suitable mechanism of influence on the Republic of Moldova.

For that, Moscow has essential economic leverages. Moreover, according to unofficial data, Russian business tries to conquer and monopolize Transnistrian economy, putting up a resistance to business contacts on high and partly on medium level with business structures of other countries, including Ukraine. The trilateral contacts between the business structures of Moldova, Ukraine and Transnistria could become the necessary precondition for economic development.

They could have a positive impact not only on the individual countries but also for the region in general, because effective integration can take place, as experience of the EU evidences, on the ground of economic factors that in future promote the political integration. According to the census, the overall number of Moldovan Ukrainians amounted to approximately The census data provides the number of According to the Ministry of Economy of the unrecognized TMR, the census of November, 11, recorded the Transnistria population size as Because we love nothing more than entrepreneurial hustle, we couldn't be more excited to announce our newest impact partner: The Rocky Mountain Microfinance Institute.

RMMFI works right in our backyard here in beautiful Denver, Colorado, and we've seen firsthand their commitment to fostering entrepreneurship, creativity, and community. Because we believe in those same principles and we believe in the team at RMMFI, we're proud to announce the launch of the Microfinance Summit Series.

Impact climbs double the impact of your travel by raising funds not only for our microfinance partners around the world, but also amazing organizations like RMMFI that support entrepreneurship right here in the U. Climbers then travel to Tanzania where they'll summit Africa's highest peak, Mt. This sounds perfect. What's next? Click below to show your interest in joining the June climb.

A September 15 info session will be open to all interested. Those unable to attend the session can also schedule an individual session to learn more. Founded in , OneSeed Expeditions is a mountain guiding outfitter that uses that power of travel to fund small businesses around the world.

OneSeed then invests 10 cents of every incoming dollar into microfinance initiatives that provide loans for local entrepreneurs. We truly believe in the power of entrepreneurship and the hard work of individuals. We also know that access to capital is a persistent barrier to growing businesses in many of the places where we guide.

We see using travel to fund entrepreneurship as a real opportunity to strengthen communities and protect some of our favorite corners of the world. That simple mantra has worked well for the travel start-up. In the short time since its founding, OneSeed has invested in hundreds of small businesses while expanding guiding operations to seven countries. The OneSeed OneStory series highlights the work of innovators and changemakers around the world.

Interested in sharing your story? Contact us at info oneseedexpeditions. We're all about hustle at OneSeed. We know firsthand what it takes to transform an idea into a business and we could not have more respect for the incredible women at the heart of this social enterprise. The Women's Bakery is "an education-centric social enterprise committed to empowering women and developing women-owned businesses. While a teacher with the U. Two colleagues of mine, Markey Culver and Julie Greene, in response to social and economic disparity, had started to bake bread with women in their respective sites of service.

This was compelling to me as the project began with a sustainable aspect: income generation. Women asked how to make bread and so both Markey and Julie began to share and teach this skill - also fortifying breads with protein and micro nutrients. We educate women and equip them with the business, technical, and life skills necessary for income generation. We train women to source local, nutritious ingredients and to produce and sell fortified, affordable breads in their communities.

Our program includes on-going oversight and operations management to ensure sustainability and business growth. TWB empowers women with business, baking, nutrition, and life skills education. This provides economic mobility, improves community nutrition and sparks local economies. The average woman in TWB training is 39 years old and has 4. One bakery creates jobs in its first year and women can earn over 2x their average local income after one year of bakery operation.

Something as simple as a loaf of bread has the power to create jobs, improve nutrition and spark economic growth. Because protein and vitamin deficiencies are a leading cause of malnutrition in East Africa and are missing from consumer products, affordable nutritious additives are essential. When women work, economies grow faster. The biggest challenge we have faced as an organization is pivoting for necessary model changes.

Our program is extensive — with a lot of moving parts — and so as a social enterprise start-up, we are constantly looking for ways to build sustainable, smart, and impactful programming! We believe our model can be relevant throughout Rwanda, East Africa, and beyond! By refining our model, we are poised to launch a relevant, measurably impactful, profitable bakery franchise model in East Africa.

We plan to train at least two more groups this year, expanding our internal staff, and growing our network of TWB women. This scale is multiplicative. Moreover, this model and its scale can be duplicated and replicated across East Africa. We are refining the model in Rwanda in real time with plans to scale into neighboring East African countries. Learn more about The Women's Bakery. See their pitch video here.

The Best in Poverty Reduction, sponsored by the Tobago House of Assembly, awards holiday providers that offer memorable experiences that support their activities in seeking to reduce and prevent poverty in a local community. The judges were looking for tourism organisation that can significantly reduce poverty in a local area and provide a working example for other providers.

The volume, quality and diversity of nominations grow each year and each category engenders considerable debate amongst the judges. OneSeed is proud to have been recognized today and we congratulate all of those here today. Welcoming over people to the event in London, Justin Francis, Managing director of Awards organisers Responsible Travel explained how the Awards were founded to change the face of the tourist industry. These contributors forge the benefits of tourism among the communities who need it most and we congratulate them on making the difference in the lives of those who are often made invisible to the outside world.

All lives matter. Eliminate the stress of packing with these quick but important tips:. Test out your gear in the comfort of your own home. Hiking boots aren't the only item that you should try on before your trip. Having loose-fitting trekking pants, a backpack that sits evenly on your hips, and sleeping bag that fits you snugly are important too!

Don't forget your sleeping bag! If you're staying in refugios or teahouses, you'll be using your sleeping bag on top of the mattress. If you're camping during your expedition, OneSeed will provide you with a sleeping pad and a tent. Many people loves trekking poles because they provide extra stability on rocky or icy terrain. Some travelers don't feel the need to use poles, but if you have balance issues, weak ankles, or knee problems, they're a great idea to keep you safe on the trail.

Water is provided for you throughout your trek. You'll be filling up your water bottles in the morning for your day's trek and you'll have the chance to refill throughout the day. A camelback style bladder is a great option for easy access to water while hiking. We recommend bringing an extra water bottle as well for use in your lodge or as a back up if your bladder leaks. Anything that's not absolutely essential for your trek can be stored at one of our partner lodges until you return.

A luggage lock can be placed on your suitcase for added security. Heavy books and electronics are great for the airplane but add a lot of weight to your backpack! Depending on the location of your expedition, you may be required to carry a backpack with all your gear or just a small daypack.

You can find this information at the top of your packing list. You'll carry your water, lunch, sunscreen, raincoat, snacks, camera etc. It should be around liters with a comfortable hip belt to distribute weight away from your shoulders.

If your expedition is fully self-supported, you're required to carry all your gear in a large backpack. Lay out all your items for the trip and pack them into your backpack before your departure. When trekking in a remote area, there are certain expectations that will help you make the most of the meals on the trail.

In most of the areas where we travel, the diet is rich in carbs. When you spend hours a day hiking, you need carbs for energy, so embrace it! Nepal is known for its dal bhat , Peru for its 3, types of potatoes, and Chile is the second largest bread consumer per capita in the world. But guess what? They all make really delicious carbs, so dig in!

They best way to order off the menu in a foreign country is to mimic what the locals are doing. Look around you to learn about the delicious local dishes and try sticking to them. It will be there for you to eat the day you get back! You can always bring a few just in case you need some extra fuel.

Push your tastebuds to the limit with new flavors. Try the tongue in Chile or the spicy pickle in Nepal because you never know what you might like. Food is an essential part of any culture. The most common way to get sick when traveling is through food and water. Trying new foods is part of the experience, but no one likes to be sick on the road. We are here to give you a few pointers to keep your adventurous palate and your sensitive stomach happy.

Keep reading to learn 5 tips about what to eat, what to avoid, and how to eat safely in any country. Every traveler wants to stay healthy and happy while overseas. Kick Montezuma to the curb and use these 6 tips to avoid having your stomach spoil your trip.

Bon voyage! Always be prepared! Being well prepared for your trek will make your time much more enjoyable, and you can focus on the wonders around you rather than your blistered feet! Here are a few tips to help you prepare for your trek. OneSeed is happy to announce our newest location, Colombia! With mountains, jungles, beaches, coffee farms, modern cities, and more, Colombia has it all. We wanted to give you a little background about this incredibly diverse and beautiful country.

Here are 7 facts you may not know about this South American gem! Colombia is the only South American country with Atlantic and Pacific coastlines. With over beaches in the country, you can have your pick. Birds, birds, and more birds. Home to 1, species of bird, Colombia has most diversity of birds in the world. Experts conclude that the ruins in this area are years older than Machu Picchu. If wisdom comes with age, those are some wise rocks! With different types of ecosystems, Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world.

We have already mentioned the pristine beaches but did you know that Colombia also houses the Andes? From top to bottom, there is a bit of everything in this country. It has also been named one of the smartest cities with many modern advances like its TransMilenio public transportation and ciclovia, where 75 miles of Bogota roads are shut down for bikers, runners, and roller-bladers every Sunday.

Is there a pot of gold at the bottom? Only one way to find out! Colombia has 58 National Parks, which is the same number as the US. That is over 55, square miles for you to explore! Sometimes backpacking means carrying a tent, digging a pit toilet, and struggling through days of dehydrated food-like substances. Sharing a roof and a restroom with your fellow travllers means a bit of compromise. Accommodations are bunk-style shared rooms and communal bathrooms.

A minute hot shower sounds nice, but resources are finite and nobody wants to go without. Light sleepers should consider earplugs a packing list necessity when sharing a room with other hikers. Snoring happens and chucking a hiking boot at the offender is generally considered inappropriate in most countries.

Bringing a small arsenal of cameras and personal electronics? While many refugios accept payment by credit card, these systems rely on power and connectivity that often fail. Refugios, while usually well-managed and surprisingly comfortable, are still mountain shelters where everything must be carried in and space is a shared resource.

This means that dinner-time substitutions and special requests can be hard to accommodate last minute. Peruvian food has strong influences from the Incas, but also includes flavors from Europe, Africa, China and Japan. In many dishes, you can find potatoes, a staple in the Andes, a wide variety of veggies, breads and sauces influenced by Europe, the vibrant stir fries influenced by the Chinese, and much, much more.

This dish represents the Chinese influence on Peruvian cuisine. Add a little soy sauce for taste and then place everything on top of a bed of… wait for it… french fries! How can you argue with french fries? Especially when Peru has been perfecting all things potato since CE?

If I had to compare this dish to another, I would say it resembles a curry because of its thick consistency and spice. Its primary and European influenced ingredient is the aji. This sauce was introduced to Peruvian cuisine by the Spaniards and has become a huge part of most Peruvian dishes. The basic aji sauce is made by mixing together tomatoes, aji peppers, cilantro, onions, but many dishes, like Aji de Gallina, add a little flare to the sauce to make it even more amazing.

In this case, the sauce is cooked with aji, condensed milk, and bread to create thickness before adding in some chicken. Peru, like many coastal regions of the world, is a heaven for all seafood lovers. The most popular dish, which can be found in most Central and South American countries, is ceviche.

Ceviche, at its core, is raw seafood with the juice of a lime and lemon squeezed on top. The acid from these two citrus fruits cooks the raw seafood. What sets the Peruvian ceviche apart from other recipes are the ingredients that accompany the seafood and citrus juice.

It is undeniably a Peruvian favorite and is sometimes regarded as the national dish. I happen to be a huge sweets person and the alfajor is definitely one of my favorite, yet rarely eaten, desserts. The alfajor is made with two very light, buttery cookies and filled with manjarblanco , or dulce de leche. Common sense takes you a long way while traveling but here are 5 tips to avoid problems and keep your belongings safe.

Being smart and following these tips will help to eliminate any of the problems that make travel a hassle. Good preparation and common sense will take you a long way. Cusco is such a unique and beautiful city so we understand why you may want to arrive early to check it out before joining OneSeed.

Cusco offers endless sights to see and places to visit. On day 1 of your OneSeed trip, make sure to meet us at the designated hotel. In the meantime, enjoy! Llamas and alpacas are both native South American animals and are often confused with one another.

Here is a quick reference so you never make the mistake that so many travelers do. They both come from the high plains of Peru, Chile, and Bolivia called the Altiplano. Here is a break-down of the differences:. Although Mr. Hearst had no problems, we think border control might have something to say. OneSeed plays a small role in the big world of microfinance.

Here's a run-down of some of the most important questions and issues within microfinance. Microfinance is the term used for the provision of financial services to the working poor. Currently, microfinance loans are aiding million people around the globe. For all the visual learners: Check this video out!

What is the difference between microfinance and microcredit? Getting a loan from a bank can be extremely difficult for someone with little cash income. Microcredit is a loan to the microentrepreneur by an MFI microfinance institution.

Microcredit is one component of microfinance. Other growing services include microsavings, microinsurance, and financial training programs offered by a number of MFIs. This might seem crazy; however, there are a lot of unseen risks and costs of sustaining an MFI. Because the loans are typically for small amounts, MFIs need to charge interest to cover administrative costs. MFIs take on risk by giving collateral-free loans. Without physical assets to secure the loan, there is no guarantee and the interest rates help to compensate for that risk.

Inflation and currency exchange rate fluctuation also plays into this problem. For example, in Nepal, the rupee has slowly been losing value against the dollar while annual inflation rates can reach double-digits. Each subsequent month the borrowers pay a portion of their loans, its value decreases against the currency in which may MFIs receive funding.

An MFI is a microfinance institution that provides the microcredit and financial services to microentrepreneurs. Many MFIs began as a non-profits, however, a for-profit sector has developed more recently. For-profit MFIs have drawn on large investments which allow them to distribute more funds by at times more efficient means. The challenge for many for-profit MFIs is achieving a balance between financial sustainability and the poverty-alleviation mission of the microfinance sector.

At OneSeed, all of our partners have been carefully selected because they meet our criteria and they all also happen to be non-profit MFIs. Here are some of the most prominent global MFIs and organizations furthering the mission of microfinance:. Grameen Foundation was an expansion of the Grameen Bank , which began in in Bangladesh. The foundation remains non-profit but the bank has converted to for-profit. Compartamos Banco is based in Mexico and is most known for is success after converting from a non-profit to a for profit.

Truelift is designed to rate how well an MFI serves those living in poverty. Cerise is a network for MFIs to share and learn from one another. The provision of financial services is neither without risk nor controversy. As the field of microfinance has grown and evolved, predatory lending practices and a lack of risk management by a small number of MFIs have raised important and fundamental critiques of lending practices.

In , several thousand people occupied an MFI in the city of Jalapa. This movement has put many MFIs at risk and therefore reduced the available microcredit in Nicaragua. In India, there have been cases of suicide due to unpaid microcredit loans. When interest rates skyrocket and borrowers are unable to repay their loans, a cycle of debt can result in personal financial ruin. OneSeed works with carefully selected MFIs that meet our criteria of low-interest rates and high social performance.

While microfinance is an important tool that aids millions of people, we recognize the importance of supporting best practices that support the poverty alleviation goals of OneSeed and our partners. In the subsequent month after your trip, OneSeed sends the money to partner MFIs in all over the world. The MFIs disburse the loans in local currency and begin to pay back OneSeed the following month in that currency.

We receive exactly what we gave minus the inflation rate. The Virtual Library on Microcredit.

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