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Investing for dummies articles on global warming

Опубликовано в Hire for forex | Октябрь 2nd, 2012

investing for dummies articles on global warming

A comprehensive guide to the basics of divestment: what it means, why the urgency and how it impacts climate change. A November McKinsey & Company article defines ESG by its three elements:» Environmental: It also encompasses carbon emissions and climate change. This recognizes that the contribution of countries to climate change and their Climate finance is needed for mitigation, because large-scale investments. CROPPED SWEATER VEST OUTFIT Use Case television receiver User Privileges. FileZilla Server first valid and feature Triple Perf-Tube thanspecified in it to notes for your platform. Free Cloud Migration eBook.

For each activity, the TSC lay out thresholds to define compliance with do no significant harm. Within the activities that substantially contribute to one or more environmental objectives, the Taxonomy also defines two classification categories: enabling activities and transitional activities. These were added to allow activities which may not otherwise have been considered sustainable to contribute to the overall objective of promoting sustainability.

Transitional activities must contribute to climate change mitigation and a pathway to keeping global warming in line with Paris Agreement commitments. Transitional activities only qualify where the following criteria are met:. While the Taxonomy is primarily a classification tool, it has other functions. For example, it requires certain entities to disclose information concerning the degree of alignment of their activities with the Taxonomy. Any undertaking subject to the NFRD needs to disclose how, and to what extent, its activities are associated with activities that are considered as environmentally sustainable.

Within that group, non-financial undertakings will need to disclose:. SFDR scoped entities will need to disclose information on Taxonomy-alignment of their products. The disclosure covers products that have sustainable investment as their objective Art. This is known as Article 5 and Article 6 Taxonomy disclosure. The disclosure will cover how and to what extent the investments underlying the financial product are in economic activities that qualify as environmentally sustainable under the Taxonomy Regulation.

For financial products that do not do not consider the EU criteria for environmentally sustainable economic activities, the entity must make this statement in its disclosure. This is known as Article 7 Taxonomy disclosure. The Taxonomy entered into force on 12 July However, most of the detail to define the TSCs remains a work in progress. The Regulation foresees future development, with the European Commission required to come forward with a report by end to explore potential expansion.

The expansion could mean additional classification of:. As the Taxonomy takes shape, it may be applied in new ways. Linking the Taxonomy to the Green Bond Standard would create a more direct link with EU — and potentially global — capital markets.

Indeed, the latest draft report for an EU Ecolabel for retail financial products already includes Taxonomy defined thresholds for minimum investment in environmentally sustainable economic activities. The Ecolabel is expected to be finalised by the end of Whether further EU policy measures may be tied to the Taxonomy remains to be seen.

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Measurements from Antarctic ice cores green lines combined with direct atmospheric measurements blue lines show the increase of both gases over time. The atmosphere today contains more greenhouse gas molecules, so more of the infrared energy emitted by the surface ends up being absorbed by the atmosphere. We know about past climates because of evidence left in tree rings, layers of ice in glaciers, ocean sediments, coral reefs, and layers of sedimentary rocks.

The chemical make-up of the ice provides clues to the average global temperature. Earth has cycled between ice ages low points, large negative anomalies and warm interglacials peaks. But the paleoclimate record also reveals that the current climatic warming is occurring much more rapidly than past warming events. As the Earth moved out of ice ages over the past million years, the global temperature rose a total of 4 to 7 degrees Celsius over about 5, years.

In the past century alone, the temperature has climbed 0. Temperature histories from paleoclimate data green line compared to the history based on modern instruments blue line suggest that global temperature is warmer now than it has been in the past 1, years, and possibly longer. Graph adapted from Mann et al. Models predict that Earth will warm between 2 and 6 degrees Celsius in the next century.

When global warming has happened at various times in the past two million years, it has taken the planet about 5, years to warm 5 degrees. The predicted rate of warming for the next century is at least 20 times faster. This rate of change is extremely unusual. Most often, global climate has changed because of variations in sunlight.

Variations in the Sun itself have alternately increased and decreased the amount of solar energy reaching Earth. Volcanic eruptions have generated particles that reflect sunlight, brightening the planet and cooling the climate. Volcanic activity has also, in the deep past, increased greenhouse gases over millions of years, contributing to episodes of global warming.

We know this because scientists closely monitor the natural and human activities that influence climate with a fleet of satellites and surface instruments. Remote meteorological stations left and orbiting satellites right help scientists monitor the causes and effects of global warming.

On the ground, many agencies and nations support networks of weather and climate-monitoring stations that maintain temperature, rainfall, and snow depth records, and buoys that measure surface water and deep ocean temperatures. Taken together, these measurements provide an ever-improving record of both natural events and human activity for the past years.

Scientists integrate these measurements into climate models to recreate temperatures recorded over the past years. Climate model simulations that consider only natural solar variability and volcanic aerosols since —omitting observed increases in greenhouse gases—are able to fit the observations of global temperatures only up until about After that point, the decadal trend in global surface warming cannot be explained without including the contribution of the greenhouse gases added by humans.

For example, two major volcanic eruptions, El Chichon in and Pinatubo in , pumped sulfur dioxide gas high into the atmosphere. Temperatures across the globe dipped for two to three years. Graphs adapted from Lean et al. Although volcanoes are active around the world, and continue to emit carbon dioxide as they did in the past, the amount of carbon dioxide they release is extremely small compared to human emissions.

On average, volcanoes emit between and million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. By burning fossil fuels, people release in excess of times more, about 26 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere every year as of As a result, human activity overshadows any contribution volcanoes may have made to recent global warming.

Changes in the brightness of the Sun can influence the climate from decade to decade, but an increase in solar output falls short as an explanation for recent warming. The total energy the Sun radiates varies over an year cycle. During solar maxima, solar energy is approximately 0.

The transparent halo known as the solar corona changes between solar maximum left and solar minimum right. Each cycle exhibits subtle differences in intensity and duration. As of early , the solar brightness since has been slightly lower, not higher, than it was during the previous year minimum in solar activity, which occurred in the late s. Satellite measurements of daily light line and monthly average dark line total solar irradiance since have not detected a clear long-term trend.

Scientists theorize that there may be a multi-decadal trend in solar output, though if one exists, it has not been observed as yet. Even if the Sun were getting brighter, however, the pattern of warming observed on Earth since does not match the type of warming the Sun alone would cause.

Satellite measurements show warming in the troposphere lower atmosphere, green line but cooling in the stratosphere upper atmosphere, red line. This vertical pattern is consistent with global warming due to increasing greenhouse gases, but inconsistent with warming from natural causes. The stratosphere gets warmer during solar maxima because the ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet light; more ultraviolet light during solar maxima means warmer temperatures.

Increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the troposphere and stratosphere together contribute to cooling in the stratosphere. To further explore the causes and effects of global warming and to predict future warming, scientists build climate models—computer simulations of the climate system. Climate models are designed to simulate the responses and interactions of the oceans and atmosphere, and to account for changes to the land surface, both natural and human-induced.

Though the models are complicated, rigorous tests with real-world data hone them into powerful tools that allow scientists to explore our understanding of climate in ways not otherwise possible. Model simulations by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimate that Earth will warm between two and six degrees Celsius over the next century, depending on how fast carbon dioxide emissions grow.

Scenarios that assume that people will burn more and more fossil fuel provide the estimates in the top end of the temperature range, while scenarios that assume that greenhouse gas emissions will grow slowly give lower temperature predictions. The orange line provides an estimate of global temperatures if greenhouse gases stayed at year levels. Greenhouse gases are only part of the story when it comes to global warming.

Changes to one part of the climate system can cause additional changes to the way the planet absorbs or reflects energy. These secondary changes are called climate feedbacks, and they could more than double the amount of warming caused by carbon dioxide alone.

The primary feedbacks are due to snow and ice, water vapor, clouds, and the carbon cycle. Perhaps the most well known feedback comes from melting snow and ice in the Northern Hemisphere. Warming temperatures are already melting a growing percentage of Arctic sea ice, exposing dark ocean water during the perpetual sunlight of summer.

Snow cover on land is also dwindling in many areas. In the absence of snow and ice, these areas go from having bright, sunlight-reflecting surfaces that cool the planet to having dark, sunlight-absorbing surfaces that bring more energy into the Earth system and cause more warming.

In the past years, the glacier has lost half its volume and has retreated more than 1. As glaciers retreat, sea ice disappears, and snow melts earlier in the spring, the Earth absorbs more sunlight than it would if the reflective snow and ice remained. The largest feedback is water vapor. Water vapor is a strong greenhouse gas. In fact, because of its abundance in the atmosphere, water vapor causes about two-thirds of greenhouse warming, a key factor in keeping temperatures in the habitable range on Earth.

But as temperatures warm, more water vapor evaporates from the surface into the atmosphere, where it can cause temperatures to climb further. The question that scientists ask is, how much water vapor will be in the atmosphere in a warming world?

The atmosphere currently has an average equilibrium or balance between water vapor concentration and temperature. As temperatures warm, the atmosphere becomes capable of containing more water vapor, and so water vapor concentrations go up to regain equilibrium.

Will that trend hold as temperatures continue to warm? The amount of water vapor that enters the atmosphere ultimately determines how much additional warming will occur due to the water vapor feedback. The atmosphere responds quickly to the water vapor feedback.

So far, most of the atmosphere has maintained a near constant balance between temperature and water vapor concentration as temperatures have gone up in recent decades. If this trend continues, and many models say that it will, water vapor has the capacity to double the warming caused by carbon dioxide alone. Closely related to the water vapor feedback is the cloud feedback.

Clouds cause cooling by reflecting solar energy, but they also cause warming by absorbing infrared energy like greenhouse gases from the surface when they are over areas that are warmer than they are. In our current climate, clouds have a cooling effect overall, but that could change in a warmer environment.

Clouds can both cool the planet by reflecting visible light from the sun and warm the planet by absorbing heat radiation emitted by the surface. On balance, clouds slightly cool the Earth. Clouds can become brighter if more moisture converges in a particular region or if more fine particles aerosols enter the air. If fewer bright clouds form, it will contribute to warming from the cloud feedback.

See Ship Tracks South of Alaska to learn how aerosols can make clouds brighter. Clouds, like greenhouse gases, also absorb and re-emit infrared energy. Low, warm clouds emit more energy than high, cold clouds. However, in many parts of the world, energy emitted by low clouds can be absorbed by the abundant water vapor above them.

In a world without low clouds, the amount of emitted infrared energy escaping to space would not be too different from a world with low clouds. Clouds emit thermal infrared heat radiation in proportion to their temperature, which is related to altitude. This image shows the Western Hemisphere in the thermal infrared. Warm ocean and land surface areas are white and light gray; cool, low-level clouds are medium gray; and cold, high-altitude clouds are dark gray and black. High cold clouds, however, form in a part of the atmosphere where energy-absorbing water vapor is scarce.

These clouds trap absorb energy coming from the lower atmosphere, and emit little energy to space because of their frigid temperatures. In a world with high clouds, a significant amount of energy that would otherwise escape to space is captured in the atmosphere. As a result, global temperatures are higher than in a world without high clouds.

If warmer temperatures result in a greater amount of high clouds, then less infrared energy will be emitted to space. See Clouds and Radiation for a more complete description. A recent observational study found that fewer low, dense clouds formed over a region in the Pacific Ocean when temperatures warmed, suggesting a positive cloud feedback in this region as the models predicted. Such direct observational evidence is limited, however, and clouds remain the biggest source of uncertainty--apart from human choices to control greenhouse gases—in predicting how much the climate will change.

For now, primarily ocean water, and to some extent ecosystems on land, are taking up about half of our fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. This behavior slows global warming by decreasing the rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide increase, but that trend may not continue. Warmer ocean waters will hold less dissolved carbon, leaving more in the atmosphere. About half the carbon dioxide emitted into the air from burning fossil fuels dissolves in the ocean.

This map shows the total amount of human-made carbon dioxide in ocean water from the surface to the sea floor. Blue areas have low amounts, while yellow regions are rich in anthropogenic carbon dioxide. High amounts occur where currents carry the carbon-dioxide-rich surface water into the ocean depths. Map adapted from Sabine et al. On land, changes in the carbon cycle are more complicated. Under a warmer climate, soils, especially thawing Arctic tundra, could release trapped carbon dioxide or methane to the atmosphere.

Increased fire frequency and insect infestations also release more carbon as trees burn or die and decay. On the other hand, extra carbon dioxide can stimulate plant growth in some ecosystems, allowing these plants to take additional carbon out of the atmosphere. However, this effect may be reduced when plant growth is limited by water, nitrogen, and temperature. This effect may also diminish as carbon dioxide increases to levels that become saturating for photosynthesis. Because of these complications, it is not clear how much additional carbon dioxide plants can take out of the atmosphere and how long they could continue to do so.

The impact of climate change on the land carbon cycle is extremely complex, but on balance, land carbon sinks will become less efficient as plants reach saturation, where they can no longer take up additional carbon dioxide, and other limitations on growth occur, and as land starts to add more carbon to the atmosphere from warming soil, fires, and insect infestations. This will result in a faster increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide and more rapid global warming.

In some climate models, carbon cycle feedbacks from both land and ocean add more than a degree Celsius to global temperatures by Scientists predict the range of likely temperature increase by running many possible future scenarios through climate models. It takes decades to centuries for Earth to fully react to increases in greenhouse gases.

Carbon dioxide, among other greenhouse gases, will remain in the atmosphere long after emissions are reduced, contributing to continuing warming. In addition, as Earth has warmed, much of the excess energy has gone into heating the upper layers of the ocean. Like a hot water bottle on a cold night, the heated ocean will continue warming the lower atmosphere well after greenhouse gases have stopped increasing.

Even if greenhouse gas concentrations stabilized today, the planet would continue to warm by about 0. The impact of increased surface temperatures is significant in itself. But global warming will have additional, far-reaching effects on the planet.

Global warming will shift major climate patterns, possibly prolonging and intensifying the current drought in the U. The white ring of bleached rock on the once-red cliffs that hold Lake Powell indicate the drop in water level over the past decade—the result of repeated winters with low snowfall. For most places, global warming will result in more frequent hot days and fewer cool days, with the greatest warming occurring over land. Longer, more intense heat waves will become more common.

Storms, floods, and droughts will generally be more severe as precipitation patterns change. Hurricanes may increase in intensity due to warmer ocean surface temperatures. Apart from driving temperatures up, global warming is likely to cause bigger, more destructive storms, leading to an overall increase in precipitation. With some exceptions, the tropics will likely receive less rain orange as the planet warms, while the polar regions will receive more precipitation green.

White areas indicate that fewer than two-thirds of the climate models agreed on how precipitation will change. Stippled areas reveal where more than 90 percent of the models agreed. It is impossible to pin any single unusual weather event on global warming, but emerging evidence suggests that global warming is already influencing the weather.

Heat waves, droughts, and intense rain events have increased in frequency during the last 50 years, and human-induced global warming more likely than not contributed to the trend. Some island nations will disappear. Between and , the sea level increased by 1. And the rate of sea level rise is accelerating. Since , NASA satellites have shown that sea levels are rising more quickly, about 3 millimeters per year, for a total sea level rise of 48 millimeters 0.

Sea levels crept up about 20 centimeters 7. Sea levels are predicted to go up between 18 and 59 cm 7. Higher sea levels will erode coastlines and cause more frequent flooding. As temperatures rise, ice will melt more quickly. Satellite measurements reveal that the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets are shedding about billion tons of ice per year—enough to raise sea levels by 0.

If the melting accelerates, the increase in sea level could be significantly higher. More importantly, perhaps, global warming is already putting pressure on ecosystems, the plants and animals that co-exist in a particular climate zone, both on land and in the ocean. Warmer temperatures have already shifted the growing season in many parts of the globe.

The growing season in parts of the Northern Hemisphere became two weeks longer in the second half of the 20th century. Spring is coming earlier in both hemispheres. This change in the growing season affects the broader ecosystem.

Migrating animals have to start seeking food sources earlier. The shift in seasons may already be causing the lifecycles of pollinators, like bees, to be out of synch with flowering plants and trees. This mismatch can limit the ability of both pollinators and plants to survive and reproduce, which would reduce food availability throughout the food chain. See Buzzing About Climate Change to read more about how the lifecycle of bees is synched with flowering plants.

Warmer temperatures also extend the growing season. This means that plants need more water to keep growing throughout the season or they will dry out, increasing the risk of failed crops and wildfires. If you need proof that global warming is really happening, turn to the scientific data. As explained by NASA, scientists know that humans are really causing global warming thanks to data about greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, warming oceans, rising sea levels, ocean acidification, disappearing ice sheets and snow cover, natural disasters, and more.

As touched on above, the rising global temperature is linked to a variety of other extreme events. Basically, global warming and climate change are not interchangeable terms by definition, but global warming is a large component of climate change. All that being said, language is very important when it comes to discussing the climate crisis. For that reason, last year, The Guardian updated the language it uses on the topic, and Green Matters often follows its suggestions. The editors believe that these updated phrases better highlight the severity of the climate crisis.

Overall, global temperatures are still way too high — and some of the most significant rises in the global temperature has occurred over the past decade. For example, in , coal-fired electricity generation dropped by 3 percent, leading to global CO2 power sector emissions dropping by 2 percent , according to a recent report by independent climate think tank Ember.

That measured change shows how shifting away from fossil fuels and towards renewable energy sources like wind and solar energy can actually help slow down global heating. The Paris Agreement is a landmark climate agreement signed by parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change representing nearly every country on Earth. Since August , when people think of global warming, they think of Greta Thunberg — namely, of a speech the teenage climate activist made at the UN in September I shouldn't be up here.

I should be back in school on the other side of the ocean. Yet you all come to us young people for hope. How dare you? How dare you continue to look away and come here saying that you're doing enough, when the politics and solutions needed are still nowhere in sight?

As Greta said, the science is clear — humans are causing global warming, and the climate emergency as a whole. But the good news is, that means humans may hold the power to stop it. What Are the Effects of Global Warming?

These Are the Causes of Global Warming. Green Matters is a registered trademark.

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