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Analise fundamentalismo forex peace

Опубликовано в How to pay forex tax | Октябрь 2nd, 2012

analise fundamentalismo forex peace

Law of Vibration Governs Stocks, Forex and Commodities Movements (Paperback) tanto ferramentas que os Investidores usam: Análise Fundamentalista. For instance, the price of forex CFDs largely depends on the supply and It goes without saying that trading should be done with full peace of mind. A detailed technical analysis through moving averages buy/sell signals (simple and exponential for 5,10,20,50, and periods) and common chart indicators . SUCCESSFUL FOREX TRADING The figure software is only turn sakila database your networks. The glibc tried George's located on her computer and I. It has advised look the least the field So the. Via phone you can in resolving rear drums.

Joyce talks of Daphne going to stay with her Aunt Flora in Cornwall. Interior — two women compare outfits. They are in a parlour room setting and wear day dresses and hats. Various shots of guests at the match — all look very posh. Includes shot of the crowd looking left and right in unison as they watch the tennis.

Various shots of a race and of spectators including a young girl standing on a post looking through binoculars and a woman placing a bet with a bookie. Lord Lonsdale is seen, and Princess Mary. Prince of Wales is seen riding. A woman jockey walks towards the camera. She says that they all wore Russian boots in those days.

Various shots of glamorous women modelling coats and Russian boots, gaiters and woolly stockings. Good fashion sequence. Vale a pena para Holders? Instruction: 1. In landscape horizontal orientation, fold the paper in half. Take all 4 corners and fold towards the centerline as shown. Following the center crease, fold the paper in half. And then fold the paper in half, vertically. Take the upper part of the model and fold towards the center crease. Repeat on the other side. Fold the model in half outwards as shown.

Hold the flaps together as shown and prepare the paper popper to be popped by adjusting the openings. NOTE: This is how it looks like — and you should hold it this way. Also, Education for Sustainable emphasizing that each human being exists Development ESD has to be defined and within the context of an interconnectedness adapted regionally, nationally and locally, for that includes not only other human beings, nations, cities and communities to understand but all living beings within the natural world, their particular sustainability challenges, their can be a foundation for long lasting peace for needs and available resources as well as to humanity.

Teachings and guidance from this empower them to undertake concrete actions and other religions or spiritual beliefs that and efforts to enhance the mindset of decision teach compassion, mutual respect and makers and all citizens. But there cannot be one single reality. Together, we have already numerous accomplishments, such as approach of spirituality and therefore we need to broaden our understanding in increasing preparedness capacities for schools and communities, producing this area.

Most importantly, we are minds of men that the defense of peace must be constructed. I see a future where all citizens life. A bioliterate citizen seeks a continuum of understand the importance of being proud of their natural resources, using them understanding, enabling individuals to develop their carefully, being inspired by them and most importantly working towards knowledge and innovative potential in order to coexist regenerating the biocapacity of our planet, to ensure future generations have a fully with their surrounding community and natural beautiful planet where they can be happy and live in harmony with nature.

Sustainable Development? A broad attitudes to encourage respect for human rights, social justice, diversity, reform including a revision of the curriculum is being implemented. My personal belief on Natural Disaster Preparedness, Green Growth, and Building a Learning is that a global community with responsible, caring and bioliterate citizens is Society. Viet Nam is also piloting a new school model, the Viet Nam Escuela the foundation of a happy, peaceful, and fulfilling life for all.

We assist Community Learning Centres and importance to understand that peace is an ultimate goal that begins in our are supporting the definition of the future learning citizen and learning society minds and is reflected through our actions. This celebration is fully aligned for Viet Nam.

As Ms. I would like to encourage everyone to take part in this celebration in UNESCO stands ready to continue to build partnerships with all those striving different ways, but especially by taking a few moments to consider why to make education in Viet Nam an exemplar for the world.

I believe Viet Nam aiming for universal peace is so important. Nourishing our attitudes and is making important efforts in this sense and will be successful as it brings behaviours with these reflections on a daily basis can ensure peaceful together all stakeholders as responsible and contributing citizens. Technology and growing exchanges across JCR: Thank you very much for your time and inspiring words, dear national borders naturally imply that dealing with tensions, conflicts and Katherine.

I am looking forward to see you again to learn more about your challenges and threats to the sustainability of our planet have to be faced in a rich experiences. Global citizenship education should provide a new set of core values to develop enhanced knowledge, skills and, most importantly, KMM: Thank you, Javier. I have had the opportunity to visit it along my friend Mulyono Sardjono and his family, and I have not doubts that such experience will encourage many people around the world to following in his steps.

Dear Bahruddin, thank you very much for sharing your time and experiences with all us. Ahmad Bahruddin: Hi Javier, thank you very much for your to visit our school in Indonesia. The pleasure is me. JCR: What is the origin of the experience and when was it born? The education system does not respect the local intellectual property that a child who is very smart locally could be considered foolish when assessed from the national curriculum.

It was our concern when establishing alternative education which we named Qaryah Thayyibah Learning Community in by providing a broad opportunity for the learners to explore their talents and capacities. JCR: What kind of challenges did you find to develop the project during all those years? AB: The challenge has always came from people who have a regular and established mindset. Why does the school have no schedule? On of society that learning does not have to be in a formal school building and using the other hand, QTLC provides full space for students to read, to comprehend, a uniformed curriculum.

Student or learner is the subject of active thinking, and should be protected in order for these critical thoughts to be JCR: How many students are in the school and what are their ages? It started in But besides the alternative school, we also organize also Qaryah Thayyibah AB: Actually there is no specific method used. Besides, learning for the adult groups, especially farmers, outcomes achieved by students can also to learn about the agriculture and life.

The members of each group vary from JCR: What is the participation of the 20 to 50 farmers. They are from several community with the activities of the districts in Central Java Province. I can school? How often there are assemblies say if from the problem of education lies and how do you promote a democratic within the farmers family, we set up the participation?

The national curricula? And specifically the parents of the students also helped school facilities QTLC are designed from the opposite thought. National curriculum places in accordance with their capabilities. No special meeting is held with the community to promote democratic values, but in the farmer group meetings, the values of a democratic, open mind, respect The National curriculum as a formal reference for the schools retain the students for others, and just become the mainstream in the daily activities.

For as objects to be "tamed" and converted into an empty container ready to be filled information, beside the QTLC alternative education for children, there is Qaryah with whatever is taught. What are the links with the local, JCR: And what do you think it is the role of media and Internet to raise regional, and national government?

What authorities have been visiting the awareness between citizens? AB: The internet is an amazing technology for this time. With the internet people AB: Until now there is no significant support from the government. There is a around the world can be linked in real time in an easy way. Today, many people small amount of money for transport allowance for the facilitator given by the can not live without internet. However, the internet can be negative and government, but the amount is not much.

However, for the current context, we dangerous when it is used with consumptive mentality. We have a political contract with the party winning the election to things are because of the internet. Promoting ideas directly, via printed materials, encourage community-based education. Some time ago we were also visited by and electronic media - especially the internet - is very helpful in promoting the Mr.

Joko Widodo — the elected president in - and he expressed to support idea and practice of alternative education - which is in fact produces good the community-based education process. We also have been visited by many outcomes for the community and nation in a broader term. I think this is a very good media to raise awareness of the JCR: What will happen after school?

Will the students continue with university society. You may visit: studies? They use their knowledge and skills to improve their quality of life, raise their families and help communities. Have you published any video or book?

AB: Ideal learning process is a process in which there are tradeoffs between teachers and students, the process that promote dialogue and discussion AB: Yes, we produce videos, printed materials, processes, not a monologue teaching system. In Qaryah Thayyibah, the task of books and other media. But mostly they are the teachers is not to teach, but teachers are friends for the students who are designed and made by the students. The school looking at and studying the world, as well as the motivator who encourage management and teachers are only the guide for students to be more critical and creative.

Teachers are more as a facilitator, and them, and sometimes they become the objects of the students are given the freedom to seek knowledge from a variety of learning video. It is amazing and unbelievable, one of our resources. She also with people around us and with the environment we live in. Life activities should become a volunteer in our school.

A lot of book are published by famous not deteriorating the environment. JCR: What is the role of imagination and creativity in this alternative educational JCR: By the other hand, how do you work with the religion issue? What is the vision? How do you promote the literature, music, sports, and arts? AB: Imagination and creativity in this alternative school are very much AB: In my opinion, religion is a tool to fight injustice, therefore understanding appreciated. We can say in this case that we are different from the conventional religion should be done in critical and logical ways.

The society here is a religious schools. Why do they have such idea, and how to because the majority of people here are Muslims. All students of QTLC are realize it, etc. Then in that week each student will realize their idea with their Muslim.

Nonetheless, Thayyibah Qaryah actually opened to students of other creativity, then report about it in the next week. So far we promote our culture, faiths. We also collaborate with other religious organizations, particularly Chris- like traditional songs, traditional music, folklore in form of videos and also tian organizations.

I am personally often involved in inter-faith discussions with printed materials. JCR: What kind of agricultural activities do you practice? Are you manufacturing food? AB: We do simple farming, as practiced by the community in rural neighborhoods. We, together with students are cultivating horticulture and cash crops. For example, we are planting chillies, vegetables, cassava, etc. We also cultivate mushrooms.

We do not produce processed foods, but in the future it can certainly be an opportunity worth exploring. Agricultural products are sold to the community members by students around the school, or even to traditional markets nearby. Our farming practices are still functioned as 'laboratories', which have not been done as a productive business. JCR: What other youth policies do you make to support education for sustainable development? AB: We see the youth as the future shape of our nation, so that is why we want Ahmad Bahruddin with members of Qaryah Thayyibah them to be wise.

There are some recognitions that we have received: experiences? Do you have an official website? AB: You may visit www. But so sorry, both are still in Indonesian Language. JCR: Just to finish, would you like to send any special message to all our readers in the celebration of the International Day of Peace? We have to promote justice to have a sustainable peace. As the activist and social workers we realize that our world is JCR: What are your future goals for the next years?

This is accomplished, which is in turn, will improve the quality JCR: Thank you very much for sharing your rich educational experiences, I hope of all citizens. We hope the new ruling government would like to help and to come back in few months to Indonesia to learn more about your activities. Of promote this kind of education after seeing that what we have done has been course, you are more than welcome to Brazil and Spain!

AB: Thank you very much to you Javier for giving us the opportunity to share our work between thousand of readers in Global Education Magazine. We hope to see you agains soon! Global Education as a Global Education must then be about the transformative vision required to move to a model of partnership between people, cultures, religions, within Transformative Learning institutions at micro and macro levels.

The project of western education has to a large extent been one of separating ourselves from each other and creating an adversarial relationship between peoples particularly if they belong on different cultures or ways of thinking. The detachment that is created consciousness on Global Education to add and join to the strongly national-regional through the process of the banking system Freire P.

In this Guideline we want to look at the notion of transformative learning in developing the concept of Global Education and will argue that the relationship with Transformative learning as part of Global Education involving a deep, structural diversity and multiculturalism is a vital starting point for approaching the main themes in shift in the basic premises of thought, feelings and action.

This implies a real change in our field. The three moments of transformative learning are defined as Riane Eisler describes the challenge of the age as one of moving from a dominator culture to one of working in partnership. Problem orientation and participatory decision-making are intrinsically present in such a framework. We have to be able to critically examine the current reality and creatively The violence inherent in domination -reproduced many times in educational explore how to move beyond this.

It is there in the way we abuse the natural world, in the drive for The goal of this kind of learning is to develop connections between people in order profit above all else, in market values, sexual slavery and overflowing prisons. It is also in to globalize peace, care and compassion. By creating these connections in circles of co- the competitive educational institutions where knowledge is consumed as an unchallenged operation and solidarity instead of dividing people through competition, conflict, fear and commodity to be sold to the highest bidder.

And yet there are more and more grassroots hatred peace learning can face the challenge of greed, inequality and over-consumption. The transformation may occur at micro levels to influence the macro in the sense of creating citizenship who take on the responsibility that cannot be left to Prof.

Alicia Cabezudo alicia. Vice President education, interfaith education, etc. These need to define the common ground of - Global Education to create a real impact on the formal education system. Rosario, formal education has a huge role to play in bringing people towards a wider Argentina understanding of their real power to influence the future. But Global Education is not only about global themes, world problems and how to find solutions altogether - it is also about to References envision a common future of Peace and Justice for All connecting Cabezudo, A.

In process possible starting from our small spot in the world. The dream drives the vision in this sense and the Haavelsrud, M. Vol 2. A Hand- not central to formal learning and give voice to the collective and marginalized. Revised new version, December , If Global Education shift the focus onto the transformation from a culture of Barcelona Spain.

We need to see Global Education as part of a wider system-based thinking, deepening learnings linked to peace, justice and freedom. Participation is the key to enrichment through the power of this learning. The praxis becomes more coherent within this perspective and allows for a dialogue between formal and non-formal education.

E-mail: sanchita. Dorsey Senior fellow at the S. E-mail: jmdorsey questfze. Hundreds of Hazidis were killed and buried in mass graves, some buried alive according to reports. We had seen ethnic cleansing Abstract: Violence and conflict still continue all over the globe. These boundaries and loyalties divide people in the planet. This paper explores several options towards a global action agenda in transboundary learning and innovation.

Transboundary innovation is innovation that rede- Missouri; fines or transcends such mental fences, boundaries and affiliations. Social hostilities and physical conflicts arising from religion is increasing over the last few years. Conflict between Abrahamic religions continue to claim lives in various places in the world and even places a grave threat of nuclear war in the Middle East.

The third avenue is transboundary innovation to bridge gaps in the manner that months old, scarred with burns and shrapnel wounds from Israel bombings, to make them enterprises are defined and practiced. The proposed actions are offered as contributions to what can talk and smile; become a global action agenda to directly address the root causes of so much violence and warfare, as well as economic losses taking place around the world today.

Talisayon men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed. It seems little or no progress have Professor retired , University of the Philippines, Technology been made in constructing defenses of peace in the minds of men since World War II see Management Center. In , the Delors Report of UNESCO recommended four fundamental pillars of Foundation education for the 21st century: learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together and learning to be 1.

Nearly two decades after the report, school systems around the globe are serafin. Children all over the world continue to manage relationships. Broadway playwrights your relatives hate. The Delors vision remains true.

We have the children that is still happening in millions of homes and schools all over the globe. The song right agenda. How do we more effectively implement the agenda? We lack an action plan to goes: reverse this miseducation. We need the champions who will implement them. Reversing this terrible miseducation means developing new educational tools for removing or overcoming the fatal tribal thinking and other mental fences in the minds of children and in the minds of parents and teachers who teach the children.

We need new and workable tools in You've got to be taught transboundary learning and innovation. You've got to be taught He is well-known for hiring an international mix of musicians in his concerts. During the con- From year to year, cert, he shared his views with his audience. He said, the reason for that was, that the lines in the maps are not in the ground.

Source: Wikimedia Commons You've got to be carefully taught. You've got to be taught before it's too late, National, ethnic, religious and other Before you are six or seven or eight, boundaries exist only in the minds of men To hate all the people your relatives hate, but they produce results in physical and social realities that horrifies us as we read in You've got to be carefully taught. The Broadway play was written in , fresh after the end of World War II and the Other man-made mental boundaries exist carnage among Japanese and American soldiers in the southern Pacific.

The approach was tried successfully in bringing together conflicted political groups in pre-Mandela South Africa 4. Another College activity is the Educational Leaders Innovation Forum, a middle-level world are the result of the difference between how nature works and the way people think. Similar institutions for generative dialogue could be considered elsewhere in the globe. Bridging leadership entails skills in managing bridging social capital, which is building productive links between social groups.

In contrast, bonding social capital This paper will examine three avenues of transboundary learning and innovation: a is building productive links within social groups. Bridging social capital contributes to developing and application of Third Delors Technologies, b developing dialogue practices planetary goodwill, inclusivity, stability and peace.

The same is not always true for bonding between religions, and c establishing programs to disseminate enterprise innovations. Under social capital. Developing and Applying Third Delors Technologies Conflict often arises between narrow interests and narrow perspectives. Broader or more systemic perspectives can build broader or more systemic interests.

Another important We need new and workable tools and technologies to enable people to learn to live global educational action is incorporating glocality in academic curricula. These tools are so critical and urgently needed sphere of influence while being informed by knowledge of larger issues and planetary that we should give them more attention. One way to do this is to adopt a label to stimulate a welfare. We need educational programs in glocality for women who will become mothers and for separatism from some sectors of its Muslim minorities.

Many — both Christians and Muslims — men and women who will become teachers, to reverse the miseducation of young children and have died in this conflict. This conflict echoes many similar ones between Muslims and Chris- more precisely address the original UNESCO mandate, namely, "since wars begin in the tians elsewhere in the globe Nigeria, Sudan, Iraq, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Chechnya, minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed.

Together with the festering conflict between Without glocality, all education has been only skirting around this mandate. Palestinians and Israelis, the global fault lines between these Abrahamic 8 religions are continuing threats to world peace and stability. If counter-glocality will continue to be unrecognized as such and allowed to grow and work its Abraham were alive today, he would be a very sad and heavy hearted person seeing the hatred, harmful effects around all of us. It is exercise of broad power that affects many but pursued for the benefit of the few.

Some examples of counter-glocality are so common and widespread that most of its Many appeals for peace have been voiced by religious leaders in the past. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota; According to the Pew Research Center, social hostilities involving religion is increasing worldwide over the last six years. Unfortunately, it was requiring environmental impact assessments from proponents of big projects as well as discontinued by the next president who did not appreciate its strategic significance.

One of the dialogue financing institutions. Direct discernment by laymen bypasses divisive However, a fundamental problem remains: corporate boundaries still treat social and theologies and religious concepts. Among the earliest Christians, the intuited Word of God suboptimal creation of social wealth. Creation and destruction of social and environmental was called rhema in contrast with the written Word of God which was called logos.

In Islam, it capital arising from production operations are not factored into corporate decision making is called ma-arifah in contrast to shariah. Among indigenous Filipino religious groups, it is unless mandated by government laws and regulations — or when communities suffering social called kaloob in contrast to the written bilin.

Over the centuries, the power of written scriptures and environmental costs threaten legal or physical action. Transboundary innovations are and organized religions had unfortunately replaced the power of direct discernment by laymen. Pamathalaan seeks to re-empower laymen of any faith by re-establishing the dialogue practice direct and consensual discernment. This gap does not exist in the case of community-owned and community-managed enterprises. The gap still exists but is narrower in the case of enterprises owned by local A Framework for Action to promote dialogue of civilizations was formulated in governments, public-private partnerships involving local governments or build-operate-and- as a result of the Tokyo conference on Dialogue of Civilizations sponsored by the UN transfer BOT enterprises where the eventual recipient of the BOT enterprise is the local University and UNESCO.

What we need to do next is to further operationalize and concretize government. Social enterprises and those enlightened corporations which voluntarily adopted dialog, especially interfaith dialog practices. Experiences of what works and what does not the triple bottom line are not owned by the local communities but they operate in a manner that work in practice are accumulating from these and similar programs and institutions in inter- community interests are protected.

These are new and emerging enterprise innovations where faith dialogue. An international movement or a UN program to compile, disseminate and the gaps between private interests and social interests begin to narrow. Establishing Programs to Disseminate Enterprise Innovations A second fundamental problem was created as a result of the emergence of the global knowledge economy.

Today, the enterprise is the primary engine for wealth creation. This is the harm that resulted from massive loss of business sustainable development principle that economic growth should not be at the expense of social confidence reverberating across national economies and markets.

Sustainable development elevated social and ecological wealth to the same level as economic wealth. Two decades after Rio, concepts and practices of Let us examine more closely what happened. Most of these that a community already has, which is any combination of social capital, access to natural intangible assets are knowledge assets. On the other hand, arises from a development perspective that looks only at financial, infrastructure, technology customer loyalty, brand and support of external stakeholders — which are components of and other tangible assets as the measures of wealth.

Such perspective views development as relationship 11 assets — are built by consumers who know the products they like. In short, merely a process of bringing in tangible assets from outside into the recipient community. It actions by employees and customers are creating most of the market value of a company. The Rio Summit broadened the concept of capital. Firstly, two important development para- stocks contribute to the instability of stock markets.

Yet, compared to buyers and sellers of digms, namely sustainable development and knowledge-based development, have been stocks, employees and customers have more permanent and organic interests in the growth proceeding along separate discourses and practices. The former is operationalized into the triple and stability of the company.

The two must be brought together under a single framework Clearly, there is a gap between productivity and reward to employees, a gap that leads applicable to both Secondly, different forms of capital must be recognized as contributing to suboptimal wealth creation. There is also a gap in corporate ownership and governance that to the creation of value, whether market value or social value.

There are infrastructure or physical capital, research evidences showing that employees who are co-owners of the enter- technological capital, etc. Corporations with large proportions of their stocks owned by employees are less vulnerable to The first practical application of sudden sell-out by stock owners or even to hostile take-overs. The above gaps these changes can be in the area of are absent in the case of corporations fully-owned by employees.

The community self-assessment of their previous proposal can be expanded to include enterprise innovations where assets, both tangible and intangible, employee and customer interests are organically integrated with corporate as an input to identifying their interests. The evolution of the enterprise form then becomes a programmatic development project or organizing a or deliberate process of re-creation and re-education.

Figure 4 shows an example. A third fundamental problem arises from the way mainstream development thinking views wealth creation, particularly at the grassroots level. Figure 4: Community Self- An analysis of success stories among over cases of anti-poverty Assessment of their Tangible and projects in the Philippines 13 discovered that the key development ingredi- Intangible Assets Suco Leuro, ent is not external funds or technology.

Chapter 12 in: There is so much violence and warfare and there is so much economic loss happening Menkhoff et al. Singapore: World Scientific, We have the right agenda — education — Talisayon and Leung: An Expanded Intellectual Capital Framework for Alleviating Social but we need a more concrete and operation set of actions to directly address the root causes.

Enterprise Innovations. The actions proposed in this paper are offered as contributions towards a global action agenda urgently needed to prevent further suffering to humankind everywhere. Talisayon and Suministrado, op. Doctoral Dissertation. Manila: Asian Social Institute, Learning: the Treasure Within. San Francisco: Berret-Koehler Publishers, Believers in Judaism, Christianity and Islam all trace their lineage to a common ancestor, Abraham or Ibrahim. But, unfortunately, tragedy attached with it is the fact that, madrasa is still covered in misery and mystery.

Not much effort has been generated to understand the Madrasa Education in Pakistan: In the Context of true nature of madrasa, and the reasons for its continued existence. The madrasas can be considered as the carrier of knowledge. There is no scholars of international community. In most of the instances it is considered to be an denying the fact that, madrasa recieved un-due curiosity and imagination of international institution of preaching hatred and violence.

Moreover, the madrasas existing in Pakistan are audience. However, most of contemporary political scholars are not aware of the fact that in considered to be factories producing religious extremists. But, strangely enough, the basic the initial days of Islam, the aim of madrasa was preservation and spread of knowledge- a reason behind the emergence of madrasa- to seek knowledge as enshrined in the principals of role that has somehow lost its efficacy over a long period of time. The sudden and tragic Islam are not known.

The position of madrasas from simple schools for education changed into 'modernise' it. The paper is also trying to understand the socio-political context of Pakistan breeding grounds of Islamist fundamentalist. The study has been based on the research The nuance of madrasa has kept changing through the ages. The genesis of this word experience of the writer who has extensively studied the Madrasa Literature of Pakistan can be traced back in the classical Hebrew.

During the early days of Islam, madrasas were considered an institution of knowledge both religious and secular. It was the regular area of Sanchita Bhattacharya debate and subjects like astronomy, architecture, physics, literature, politics etc were frequently discussed among the scholars and teachers. But, unfortunately, over a period of Research Associate in "Institute for Conflict Management", New Delhi, time, madrasa did evolve as only a place of religious learning.

A stark shift that did have India. In a contributes a lot in this phenomenon. Students are more inclined towards earning a living for country like Pakistan, the element of Islam has a direct impact in shaping the madrasa their family rather than acquiring formal education.

In Pakistan, progress of educational structure. Islamisation entails a process of legislative, executive and education, low literacy and enrolment rates, significantly high dropout rates, and acute legal actions through which individuals spend their lives in accordance to the teachings of regional and gender inequalities Shaikh, The state itself is the product of such divisive structure as the people involved in politics are from elite and affluent families, not The correlation between Islamisation and madrasa education lies in the fact that they interested or even familiar with actual problems.

They do not belong to the deprived lot, complement as well as supplement each other. The approach of the State under Pervez Musharraf saw extensive elaboration of through its ideology and followers. In June , the Pakistani government tried to register every madrasa. Only , about one tenth, Interestingly, madrasa since time of its emergence has been intrinsically related with agreed to be registered and the rest simply ignored the statute.

There was no incentive to state activities, policies and patronage. In the formative period of Islam, madrasas acted as register and no punishment if one did not Singer, Therefore, the two entities: madrasas and state have shared common history through ages. This affiliation does not require indicators. Besides, the been the establishment of three model madrasas, one each in Karachi and Sukkur in Sindh existence of 'Ghost schools' predominantly in the rural areas of Pakistan have also Province and in the federal capital, Islamabad.

According to the malpractice, schools are registered under the government but, in reality the school building acts as cow-shed or a The Education Sector Reform Action Plan was embarked by Musharraf Government. The normal trend in Pakistan is high drop-out rate at every crucial educational stage. Special attention was paid within key policy formulations, particularly the Education Sector Some quit formal education after reaching 5th grade in school.

And the process continues till the college level. However, the issue of madrasa reforms has become more However, some madrasas do resist registration in favour of more autonomy. Board have resulted in non-cooperation of the heads of madrasas Government of Pakistan In , Government in Pakistan promised to reform madrasas by cracking down on Despite all the efforts so far have been made by the governments, the issue could not ones that preach violence, pushing the remaining ones towards moderation and integrating be resolved.

There is a state of mistrust between the government and the madrasa them into the public school system. Musharraf thus announced an initiative, the Deeni establishment. Government offered financial and technical assistance to madrasas for their Madaris Ordinance Voluntary Registration and Regulation of Through the Voluntary Registration and Regulation Ordinance , the state While discussing the madrasa education, we tend to forget a very essential element of promised funding to madrasas that formally registered with the government.

In a more the system. Madrasas have proved themselves in the test of time. For centuries they are impart- controversial step, the Pakistani state demanded that madrasas expel all foreign students by ing education. One should not neglect the fact that some innate features must be indigenously December 31, Islamist groups vehemently resisted government's efforts, and authorities good within the system, otherwise it would have perished long ago.

But, tragic enough, the backed down and made public statements indicating that they would not use force or shut initial motive behind madrasa formation has seen an adverse tilt. Madrasas can no more be down noncompliant madrasas to enforce the directives Blanchard, Therefore, it becomes very important to analyse the impact attitude of Ulema Candland, The popular mandate is very hard to achieve due to of madrasa education on the society and polity. The sentiment of common people as anti-US and lack of Government credibility caused such failure.

In Pakistan also, the madrasas do not have a unified structure, as they are divided on the basis of sects. Deobandis are concentrated in the Pashtun belt from north for this purpose. With the aim of establishing and strengthening lines of communication Punjab to NWFP KP , northern Baluchistan, urban Punjab and Sindh, Barelwis are between madrasas and the state, it was to educate 1. The Ahl-e-Hadith are also located in Paunjab and the Shias are inhabited in Karachi, Southern main objective of the reform is to introduce formal subjects like English, Mathematics, Punjab and northern areas of Pakistan occupied Kashmir PoK Bedi, At the intermediate level, English, Economics, Pakistan Studies and Computer Science were to One of the major outcomes of madrasa education in Pakistan has been the spillover be taught.

Pakistan as we know is surrounded by Afghanistan and Iran. The end of s saw emergence of revivalist Shia Islam in Iran, with the rise of The government proposed a new education policy in September , and a decision Khomeini and at the same time the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan called for the need of was made to establish a Madrassa Regulatory Authority under the Interior Ministry to control religious fighter to cast away the atheist Soviet force.

The establishment of religious theocracy madrasas. The Afghan The religious and emotion concept of sawab or getting 'reward' for good deeds is very refugee factor was also very dominant in Afghanistan-Pakistan border area. The year well attached with the concept of charity vis-a-vis madrasa. People with enormous amount of experienced over 3. Pakistan organised network of Islamist parties run several programs in refugee camps blessings of the God and also for a better after-life.

And as a result, madrasas flourished in such environment as the state was unable to provide alternatives and radical forces took the The cause and effect of the above mentioned points, have given scope and reason to the chance Nolan, Most of the volunteers of Afghan Jihad are Afghanis, and some international community for demonising Islam. The conflicting and divisive role played by Pakistani citizens as well, who originated from the NWFP KP , Balochistan and also from madrasas in Pakistan has given a chance to the international community to brand Islam as a Sindh and Punjab Dorronsoro, The main activities of madrasas have over the years violent religion and madrasas as the institution preaching that version.

The international shifted from the Afghanistan border areas to southern and rural Punjab. There is no denying the fact that madrasa education linking madrasas with Afghan cause is commendable. The tribal dominated region of Federally produce religious, sectarian, sub-sectarian and anti-west bias, but it cannot be justified that Administered Tribal Area FATA , along the Afghanistan border proved to be the breeding such bias are translated into militancy and other forms of violence, as considered by the grounds for Mujahideen trained in hundreds of seminaries, under the supervision of ISI international community.

In the eyes of western politicians, a certain type of education based instructors. The Soviet invasion caused proliferation of explanation for the inculcation of hate and irrationality in Islamist terrorists Bergen and Deobandi madrasas in the border areas. The madrasas have been considered as Neo- Pandey, The linking of Islamic education with militant activities against the West has fundamentalist groups, active in Pakistan and Afghanistan since s which gave birth to the resulted in the propagation of simplistic notions of Islam as a monolithic, ideological and radicalisation of the conservative religious forces of Taliban.

Their main aim is imposition of violent faith Saikh, And at the same time, not just madrasa students, but people from Shariyat and aggravation of Jihad in the name of religion Roy, Most of those indulging in suicide bombing and actual fighting against non-Muslims are young, radical and angry people belonging to The madrasa have a strong following among the less fortunate section of both rural and secular institutions of learning, who are majorly anti-West due to neo-colonial and exploitative urban Pakistan.

With the spread of radical Islam into the hinterland of the country the madrsas policies Rahman, There is a fundamental distinction between madrasa graduates who have started to behave like a centre of power and politics. Therefore, the construction of are from poor economic background, possessing little technological knowledge and lead a madrasas generally receive more funds and donation in comparison to schools.

On the other downplayed pious life in villages and the middle class, politically literate global Jihadis Bedi, hand, the so-called educated section of Pakistan with cadet, public and missionary school The second section uses its own western exposure and upbringing to negate the modern upbringings do not want to get associated with madrasas.

An important aspect which is never discussed in international arena. The madrasa students are not open towards the western educated people, as they are considered forerunners of un-Islamic thoughts and morally delinquent. But, refuting the western concepts of capitalism, socialism, liberty, economic ideas and unfortunately, most of these are a political 'eyewash', as the government has failed miserably to individualism and consider these concepts to be disruptive on the muslim society Rahman, regulate and streamline the madrasa education.

One of the major lacunae of the study has been Most madrasas do not teach secular subjects. Religious leaders who decide the the inability to estimate the total number of madrasas both registered and un-registered in curriculum contend that every aspect of knowledge that a Muslim needs to know has been re- Pakistan. Given this resistance to secular knowledge, curricular autonomy and superiority are the major impediments towards rational development most religious schools are not designed to prepare students for employment USAID, Ahmad, Zafar Kumar, Krishna Unpublished doctoral Thesis.

Jawaharlal Nehru University: New Delhi. Nolan, Leigh Afghanistan, Education, and the Formation of the Taliban. Tufts University, Boston. Available online at Aslam, Maleeha Rahman, Tariq Madrasas The potential for violence in Pakistan? In Jamal Malik Ed.

Bedi, Rohan Roy, Oliver Bergen, Peter and Pandey, Swati The Madrassa Scapegoat. The Washington Quarterly, vol. Sareen, Sushant New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. Blanchard, Christopher, M. Quoted in Lisa A. Butt, Tahir Mehmood Candland, Christopher Madrasas in South Asia Teaching Terror? Commission on Human Rights USAID Dorronsoro, Gilles Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas Government of Pakistan Religion and education in Pakistan: an overview, Prospects, vol. Quoted in Shaikh, Amneh Warring ideologies: The use of education policy to control religious fundamentalism in Pakistan.

Gul, Imtiaz The Al Qaeda Connection. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ICG Asia Report This progress must be the teacher quality that contains a number of publications, number of citations, and number of speed of a rocket to reach the same level than other countries like Israel, Singapore, etc. According to Times Higher this article, we show the benefits, the objectives, the needs of sciences.

It surveys the existing Education Rankings, 20 countries have a good quality education with the remarkable domina- of some solutions applied in developed countries. These good solutions show the ability to tion of the U. This is logical, because US has 46 universities in the top that represents solve many problems. Our goal is to discuss and answer about three questions: where are we ''undisputed superpower''. We can cite five universities which have a reputation such as: now?

Where do we need to go? How do we get there? Faced with this reality, they have improved their education systems by creating a great environment of work. Mohamed Mediouni Independent Researcher E-mail: mohamed.

The increased role of knowledge is at the heart Tunisia, Maroc, etc. The following figure shows a comparison of the scientific production in of society and the knowledge economy. This new reality leads us to examine the practical Iran, in , and those of it, there's 10 years shows that the country is well and truly on the development and dissemination of knowledge in the context of democratization.

The innova- path of progress, economically, and in the field of scientific research. In terms of scientific tion is inspired by the vision of the democratization of the education in terms of access, output, Iran has a record of 15, articles, which shows a significant increase in comparison research and dissemination of the knowledge.

The challenges of meeting these two organiza- with and This evolution is the result of work people, the mentality of the person tional cultures, as well as the difficulties, opportunities and conditions for success of these and the courage of leaderships includes financial providers, and politicians. While this approach requires a lot of partners, it has the advantage of broadening and democratizing the circle of those who produce and disseminate academic knowledge.

In this section, I will discuss the specific practices of partnership research, opportunities, challenges and conditions for success. Because of trust established with partners, research partnership provides access to data that the researcher would not have otherwise. It opens the doors when collecting data in the field. Research partnership can cover areas of research that are otherwise inaccessible to the researcher.

For example, the experience learning on vulnerable populations as the homeless, alcoholics or people with mental problems can become objects of evaluative research made possible by the collaboration of partners involved in these experiments. Research partnership increases the opportunities for dissemination of results. The research partnership enables communities of practice to get researchers to focus on the issues that concern them and the real problems they encounter.

The research partnership involves a real sharing of power and resources between actors, academics and representatives of communities of practice. In partnership research, we need trust and transparency between academic researchers and partners in practice. Research approaches in partnership should also be treated at the time of dissemination and translation into transfer activities.

And how do we get there? To what extent are young adults prepared to meet the challenges of tomorrow? Are We have seen that the difference with other countries is enormous. Tunisians have they really able to analyze, think, and communicate their ideas? Have they the means to shown their ability to change a dictatorship. But now we have to think that the war is continue to learn throughout their lives?

Many education systems follow the evolution of scientific to prevent the ignorance and the offset with other countries. Comparative analyzes at the been remembered as one of the best speeches of Obama to encourage people to give their international level can complement and enrich the work at the national level by determining best for their country.

After our revolution in , we must show that '' the possible is Tuni- the level of competence achieved by students from different countries and offering a broader sian''. The success of the U. Associated with research centers, industry.

We will give some examples of research centers of advanced sci- appropriate incentives, they can encourage students to learn better, teachers teach better, and ences in developed countries: Medical Sciences Research Center, Center for Research in schools to be more effective. Governments and the general public need the reliable and suit- NanoEngineering, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Energy and able information for an international comparison regarding the learning outcomes.

It must periodi- discoveries that will be used to improve the productivity of industrial companies. The success cally provide indicators of student achievement action-oriented government and of the center must be conditioned by three basic notions: non-profit organization, internationally comparable. The task of qualifying has been entrusted to a panel of European transparency, and independence.

But should we really worry? Why students 2. Avenues of understanding can be suggested by considering the example of Stanford University, passed in less than five decades from a small When we ask, what are the skills, experiences, and environments necessary for innova- regional university in the center of knowledge creation and innovation. American universities tion? And how do we build these environments to enhance the experiences and skills of attract foreigners, because the research is in the first position.

Both figures reflect this students? It would not be an easy question to answer. Leadership tomorrow depends on how we educate our students today—espe- resources are from the research. American universities are characterized by well-equipped li- cially in science, technology, engineering and math. It's not educate to educate, but educate to innovate. The Engineers and scientists trained and bring a new vision to the company that hired.

Global Posi- system encourages students to improve their educational levels thanks to a coherent learning tioning System GPS was invented by Stanford University. The companies like Sun Microsys- system based on real world applications. The were created by former students. STEM program has torted, it can lead to years of mistrust Mediouni, We need a journalist who specializes been a success in the country which characterized by a ''coherent system'' for the development in the field of science.

It's disappointing when a project that required a lot of effort and 2. Evidence Network. CA, an organization recently created and funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Universities and institutions in Tunisia are not enough to make a scientific revolution. Research and the Canada Research Council of Manitoba, led by Noralou Roos, professor at The solution is to create specialized research center collaborates with universities and the Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba.

The universe? This world view is flawed because it doesn't recognize the limitations of each of network also invites scientists to write opinion articles. This tactic encourages academics to these disciplines. Albert Einstein said: "A legitimate conflict between science and religion disseminate their messages and allows them to control the content. For high scientific developments in Tunisia, science and religion share some fields of 3 What are the prospects for Tunisia?

Tunisia is a Muslim country. The fundamental message of Islam is very similar to all religion: is to be a good human being, to follow your god, and focus to the knowledge, Today our search system accuses a certain delay, but not inevitable.

The American model is knowledge, and knowledge. Tunisia is a mixture of several original Musulman, Africain, based on five concepts: Mediterranean, Arabe, etc. Tunisian doesn't have any internal conflicts of culture and civilization. Academic research and high-risk activity, may not lead to an immediate technological solution. It is complementary to industrial Today, the vitality of our economic and intellectual forces depends more than ever, the research.

For such a system to be successful, mobility between industry and university laborato- attractiveness of our system of education and research. If the state can contribute the ries is essential. The PhD is a training of American industry.

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